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《经济学人》:女人们都做什么工作呢

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Women and jobs
女性和工作

What women do
女人们都做什么工作呢

Economic growth has surprisingly little effect on the wage gap
经济的增长出人意料地对工资差距没有多少影响

Sep 24th 2011 | from the print edition

Study hard, and you’ll earn more than me

“MEN are finished.” That was the proposition in a debate at New York University (NYU) on September 20th. Hardly. A World Bank report published the day before finds that, although particular groups of ill-educated young men are doing badly, and although women’s lives have improved a lot in the past 20 years, sexual inequality at work is remarkably stubborn. Globally, women earn 10-30% less than men. They are also concentrated in “women’s” jobs. Annoyingly, economic growth does not seem to narrow the gap.

“男人们完了。”这是9月20日在纽约大学举办的一次辩论中的一个观点。这个说法很难成立。之前世界银行发布的一份报告显示,即便在某些群体中教育程度低的年轻男性生活情况糟糕,而且在过去二十年女人们的生活水平有了大幅的提高,职场中的性别不平等情况还是没怎么改变。全球来看,女人比男人少挣10%到30%。她们也主要集中在“女人的”职业里面。令人气恼的是,经济的增长似乎并没有带来差距的缩小。

This is surprising. You might expect that as countries get richer, women would become better educated and jobs requiring brute strength would become less important. Rich countries also have larger public sectors, where the wage gap is smaller. Yet overall, the gap is no smaller in rich countries such as Britain and the Netherlands than in poor ones such as the Philippines.

这真是让人惊讶。你也许会觉得随着国家变得富有,女人就能够获得更多的教育,而且需要消耗蛮力的工作也会变得不那么重要。富裕的国家还有更加庞大的公共部门,这些部门的工资性别差距要小一些。但是总体看来,在像英国、荷兰这样的富裕国家里,工资差距并不比贫穷的国家小。

More striking, there is little sign that women are moving into traditionally male occupations. Men utterly dominate such beefy industries as transport and mining. A hefty 11% of men work in construction; only 1% of women do.

让人更加惊奇的是,几乎没有迹象表明女人在逐渐进入传统男性行业。男人们完全统治着这些行业,比如运输和采矿业。多达11%的男人在建筑行业工作,而只有1%的女人也在这个行业里面。

Women cluster in communications, retail and public administration, including education and health. This is true regardless of national income. Looking at Bangladesh, Mexico and Sweden, the bank found that men and women tended to separate themselves into the same sorts of occupation in all three countries. (Bangladeshi shops and hotels, which employed disproportionately more men, were exceptions.)

不管国民收入多寡,女性都集中在通讯,零售和公共管理(包括教育和健康)领域。具体到孟加拉国、墨西哥和瑞典,世界银行发现在这三个国家男人和女人们都倾向于各自集中在相同的行业里面。(除了孟加拉国的商店和酒店雇佣了特别多的男人。)

重点单词   查看全部解释    
contract ['kɔntrækt,kən'trækt]

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n. 合同,契约,婚约,合约
v. 订合同,缩

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striking ['straikiŋ]

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adj. 吸引人的,显著的
n. 打击

 
inequality [.ini'kwɔliti]

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n. 不平等,不平均,差异,多变性,不等式

 
prime [praim]

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adj. 最初的,首要的,最好的,典型的
n.

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tend [tend]

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v. 趋向,易于,照料,护理

 
multiple ['mʌltipl]

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adj. 许多,多种多样的
n. 倍数,并联

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widespread ['waidspred]

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adj. 分布(或散布)广的,普遍的

 
transport [træns'pɔ:t]

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n. 运输、运输工具;(常用复数)强烈的情绪(狂喜或狂怒

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retail ['ri:teil]

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n. 零售
vt. 零售,传述
ad

 
debate [di'beit]

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n. 辩论,讨论
vt. 争论,思考

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