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经济学人:余音袅袅在海滩

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Books and Arts; Music Review;

文艺;音乐评论;

The Aldeburgh World Orchestra

奥德伯格世界交响乐团

Beach music

余音袅袅在海滩

120 players from 35 countries have a ball

来自35个国家的120名音乐家齐聚一堂开party

The musicians who got off the bus all wore the same black hoodies with “Aldeburgh World Orchestra 2012” printed on the back. But the cases they carried were far from uniform. There were pocket-sized boxes for the piccolos, a wheeled-trolley for the harp and knobbly trunks, all barnacled in stickers, for the cellos. The English seaside town of Aldeburgh, the home of Benjamin Britten, is used to welcoming performers from all over the world, but nothing on this scale; a musical Olympiad of 120 players from 35 countries.

下了车,所有的音乐家们都穿着统一的黑色卫衣,背上还印有“奥德伯格世界交响乐团2012”字样,但他们各自拉的箱子却五花八门——袖珍小巧的短笛盒子,装竖琴的带轮推车,还有装大提琴的多节箱子,上面满是贴纸。奥德伯格是英国的海滨城市,也是Benjamin Britten的家乡,过去总有世界各地的演奏家来这表演,但从来没有达到这次的规模——来自35个国家的120名音乐家齐聚一堂,堪比音乐届的奥林匹克盛典。

Through its Britten-Pears young artist programme, Aldeburgh Music has earned a world-class reputation as a centre for the development of musical talent. When the programme's 40th anniversary coincided with London's Olympic games, Aldeburgh Music's chief executive, Jonathan Reekie, decided the moment had come for Aldeburgh to take a leap ahead and create a “world” orchestra. Most orchestras—even the most international ensembles—recruit largely from Europe and America. The challenge for Mr Reekie and his team in creating the Aldeburgh World Orchestra (AWO) was to seek out 18-29-year-olds and use modern technology to try to make the orchestra truly global.

奥德伯格音乐节有个“布里顿-皮尔斯青年艺术家项目”,正是这个项目让这一滨海小城闻名世界,成为培养音乐天才的中心。该项目的40周年纪念正好赶上伦敦奥运会,奥德伯格音乐节的行政主管Jonathan Reekie就此决定,是时候让奥德伯格阔步向前,建立一个“世界”交响乐团。世界上大部分乐团的成员大都来自欧美,即使最国际化的乐团也不例外。建立奥德伯格世界交响乐团(AWO),难就难在Reekie和他的团对必须寻找18到29岁的年轻乐手,还得运用现代科技确保这一乐团真正国际起来。

The £700,000m project, which has received public and corporate funding, began three years ago with a call for YouTube submissions. Then Marie Bennell, the AWO's orchestra manager, travelled to Mexico to watch a rehearsal of the Youth Orchestra of the Americas, an important recruiter of regional talent. Patricia da Silva, a Brazilian double-bass player who is no more than five feet tall, stood out for her steady hand and warm personality. The British Council in Egypt called the Cairo Conservatoire, who suggested Marcellino Safwat, a 17-year-old cellist with ambitions to become a conductor. A colleague in Tokyo sent word to China, where YouTube is banned, and old-fashioned demo tapes began to pour in. Over eight weeks Ms Bennell watched and listened to more than 600 submissions.

这一项目三年前在YouTube上启动报名,耗资70万英镑,还享有政府和企业资助。奥德伯格世界交响乐团的时任经理Marie Bennell去了墨西哥,观看美洲青年管弦乐团的排练,因为这个乐团集结了很多当地音乐人才。巴西低音提琴演奏家Patricia da Silva身高虽不过五英尺(1.52米),但却因手稳且平易近人脱颖而出。英国驻埃及文化委员会联系了开罗音乐学院,学院举荐了大提琴手Marcellino Safwat,他虽年仅17,却有有朝一日成为指挥家的雄心壮志。一名东京的工作人员把报名消息带到了中国,但由于YouTube在中国无法使用,报名者便源源不断地寄来老式小样磁带。Bennell在八个多星期里,连看带听的处理了600多份报名申请。

She was determined to put together an ensemble that was capable of taking on a demanding repertoire and producing a unified sound. For that, she needed not just technical ability, but a steeliness of character and a willingness to listen. Players emerged in clusters, often grouped around an outstanding teacher. South Africa produces excellent string players, many of them taught by 82-year-old Jack de Wet (who taught Ms Bennell), and Sophie Cherrier has made France the country to go to for young flautists. Britain dominates the orchestra's brass section, inspired by Richard Watkins, the Philharmonia's former principal hornplayer, who is now a professor at the Royal Academy of Music. The final selection was truly international: the cello section alone has players from ten countries, including Palestine and South Africa.

她决心组建一个能胜任各种高难度曲目并且音律和谐统一的乐团。为此,她不仅要有技术上的辨别能力,还得性格足够强大并且乐于倾听。报名乐手络绎不绝,而师出同一名师的学生通常会结伴报名。南非多出杰出弦乐演奏家,而他们大都师从于现已82岁高龄的Jack de Wet(他也是Bennell的老师);法国横笛大师Sophie Cherrier则令年轻笛手们都争相奔往法国。Richard Watkins--爱乐乐团前首席号角手--时任皇家音乐学院教授,在他的激发下,英国乐手独霸乐团的铜管乐部。最终的选择才是真正称得上国际选才:仅大提琴部就有来自包括巴勒斯坦和南非在内的十个国家的乐手。

In Sir Mark Elder, the AWO found exactly the conductor it needed. Fiercely demanding and articulate, he is also “incredibly kind”, Ms Bennell says. He is music director of the Hallé orchestra in Manchester, where he teaches conducting; he has also worked with Britain's National Youth Orchestra, and knows from experience that creating an ensemble of young players is an emotional and psychological process that requires a willingness to concentrate and cannot easily be hurried.

奥德伯格世界交响乐团认为Mark Elder爵士正是乐团指挥的最佳人选。Bennell说,爵士为人极其严苛,心直口快,但也有十分和蔼的一面。Mark Elder爵士是曼彻斯特哈雷乐团的音乐总监,负责教授指挥;他也还在英国国家青年乐团帮忙。据他的经验,创建年轻乐手乐团是一种历程,有关情感和心理的历程,这种历程需要自主自愿的集中精力,并且不能操之过急。

Some of the less experienced musicians were taught, before they arrived, by professional musicians in Britain whose instructions were relayed by videoconference. Once in Aldeburgh, each section worked for a week with a specialist before the full rehearsals. A number of them played alongside their pupils in front of the conductor, which, for some, was itself an experience to remember. As Ms da Silva posted on Facebook: “The unthinkable happened today: I played with the principal bassist of the Berlin Philharmonic. I still can't believe it!”

一些年轻乐手缺乏经验,在英国的资深音乐家便通过视频会议在这些乐手到达奥德伯格之前对他们授课指导。以前在奥德伯格,每个部在合练之前都要配一个专家单独训练一周。好些专家便会跟着指挥和他们的学生一起排练演奏,这对部分学生来说是终生难忘的经历。da Silva就在她的脸谱上发状态说道“今天发生了不可思议的事:我和柏林爱乐乐团首席低音提琴手一起演奏了。这太让人难以置信了!”

It was important, Sir Mark says, “to set the musical bar very high—and then ensure that they get up there.” Setting a high bar meant choosing a demanding repertoire: the strange and ambiguous Fifth Symphony that Dmitri Shostakovich wrote in 1937 when he had fallen out of grace with Stalin and the Communist Party, but was determined to go on composing in Russia, and the Sinfonia da Requiem, with its brilliant brass fanfares and heavy funeral march, that Britten wrote in 1940 as Europe was engulfed in war.

马克爵士指出“先把音乐标准设高一些,再确保他们能达到这一标准”至关重要。设置高门坎就意味着要挑选一些高难度的曲目:德米特里·肖斯塔科维奇1937年写的晦涩难懂,风格古怪的《第五交响乐》,当时的他已失宠于斯大林,共产党对他也不再尊崇,但他毅然决然继续留在俄罗斯创作。再有就是布里顿1940年写的《安魂交响曲》——精彩绝伦的热闹铜管演奏,伴上沉重的葬礼进行曲,相辅相成,成就了一曲绝响。

These musical responses to the worst that the 20th century could throw at the world had a resonance for many of the players, especially those from troubled parts of Russia, Central Asia and the Middle East. Rehearsing the first movement of the Shostakovich, Sir Mark was determined that the players should plumb the musical depths. “It has to be more powerfully played, more brilliantly played,” he insisted. “It has to feel like a crisis; all the ideas in the music are threatening to explode. It must never feel like café music.” Aldeburgh may be a small seaside town, but there has been nothing small about creating this world orchestra.

这些音乐发声自20世纪人类经受的最深重的苦难,对于许多乐手,尤其是那些来自俄罗斯危机地区,中亚和中广东地区的乐手,这样的音乐最能唤起内心深处的共鸣。在排练肖斯塔科维奇的第一乐章时,马克爵士就决心让乐手们更进一步地去探索挖掘该音乐的深度。他坚持认为“必须将这首曲目演奏地更有力度,更加精彩。演奏得让人感受到危机四伏,感到音乐中各种思想的交汇融合就像是要爆炸泄出一样。决不能让这曲子听起来跟咖啡馆音乐似的。”奥德伯格也许只是个小小的滨海城市,但在这儿创建的世界交响乐团绝不容小觑哦。

The Aldeburgh World Orchestra will be performing at the Snape Maltings concert hall near Aldeburgh on July 20th and 22nd, at the Ingolstadt festival in Germany on July 25th, the Concertgebouw in Amsterdam on July 27th and at the BBC Proms at London's Royal Albert Hall on July 29th.

7月20号和22号,奥德伯格世界交响乐团将在奥德伯格附近的斯内普马尔廷音乐大厅演出;7月25号,在德国英戈尔施塔特音乐节演出;7月27号,在阿姆斯特丹皇家音乐厅演出;7月29号,在伦敦皇家阿尔伯特音乐厅为BBC节目演出。

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n. 董事,经理,主管,指导者,导演

 
threatening ['θretniŋ]

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adj. 威胁(性)的,凶兆的 动词threaten的现

 
emotional [i'məuʃənl]

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adj. 感情的,情绪的

 
steady ['stedi]

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adj. 稳定的,稳固的,坚定的
v. 使稳固

 
determined [di'tə:mind]

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uniform ['ju:nifɔ:m]

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outstanding [aut'stændiŋ]

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rehearsal [ri'hə:sl]

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setting ['setiŋ]

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n. 安装,放置,周围,环境,(为诗等谱写的)乐曲

 
repertoire ['repətwɑ:]

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