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把大海装进瓶子 水和油的化学把戏

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Make an Ocean in a Bottle. The science boffins are going to show us how to make a Cartesian diver. It is named after Rene Descartes, a famous French scientist, mathematician, and philosopher.

把大海装进瓶子。科学工作者将会告诉我们如何制作浮沉子计,一种以法国科学家笛卡尔的名字命名的计量工具。笛卡尔还是法国的计量学家和哲学家。

Step 1: You will need

1.所需材料

•A clear plastic bottle - a big soft drinks bottle is best

1只透明的塑料瓶——大桶的饮料瓶最佳

•A funnel

1只漏斗

•Some water

一些水

•A few drops of blue food colouring

少许蓝色食物色素

•cooking oil - any type will do.

食用油——任何种类的都可以

Step 2: Aim

2.目标

The aim of this experiment is to see why oil and water cannot mix together.

这个实验的目的是为了弄明白为什么油和水不能混合在一起。

Step 3: Method

3.方法

Fill one third of the bottle with water. Add a few drops of blue food colouring and swish it around a bit until it's turned a dark blue colour. Top up the bottle with cooking oil. Use the funnel to make it easier. Put the lid on as tight as it will go. Tilt the bottle from side to side. The water and oil do not mix together, but instead they form layers. The oil floats on the water which makes it move like a wave.

注入瓶身容量1/3的水,加入几滴蓝色食物色素。使用漏斗向瓶子中加入油,注满后盖紧瓶盖。然后慢慢转动瓶身,由于水和油并不融合,而是形成两层,所以油在水上滑过,就像是海中的波浪一样。

Step 4: Conclusion

4.结论

Why did this happen? Oil sits on top of water because oil is less dense. but some liquids with different densities can mix together. So why not these two? For liquids to mix together their molecules need to make new bonds with each other. The oil and water cannot mix together because water molecules have strong bonds between them called hydrogen bonds. The oil molecules are also held together by bonds, but these are of a different polarity to the hydrogen bonds, and the oil bonds are not strong enough to break the water's hydrogen bonds. So the water and oil molecules cannot join up with each other, keeping the water and the oil forever separate.

为什么会发生这种现象呢。油漂浮在水上面是因为它的密度比水小。但是也有不同密度的液体能很好地融合在一起的例子。对于液体来说,融合在一起是它们的分子需要从新结合,但是为什么水分子不能呢,因为水分子中有氢键的存在,这是一种很稳定的分子式,但是油的分子并不足够强大,不能打断水的氢键,所以油和水不能溶解在一起,因此它们也就永远单独存在。

Experiment Complete!

实验结束!

Thanks for watching video How To Make An Ocean In A Bottle

谢谢收看本期“把大海装进瓶子”节目。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
diver ['daivə]

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n. 跳水者,潜水员

 
polarity [pəu'læriti]

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n. 有两极,磁性引力,极性 n. 两极分化,极端性

 
lid [lid]

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n. 盖,眼睑
vt. 给 ... 装盖子

 
conclusion [kən'klu:ʒən]

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n. 结论

 
tilt [tilt]

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vt. (使)倾斜
vi. 抨击,争论

 
plastic ['plæstik, plɑ:stik]

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adj. 塑料的,可塑的,造型的,整形的,易受影响的

 
hydrogen ['haidridʒən]

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n. 氢

 
separate ['sepəreit]

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n. 分开,抽印本
adj. 分开的,各自的,

 


关键字: 大海 瓶子 浮沉子 游戏

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