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经济学人:足球转会

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Football transfers

足球转会

Reassuringly expensive

天价

The financial gulf between English clubs and the rest of Europe is growing

英国足球俱乐部与欧洲其他俱乐部财力差距正在拉大。

Sep 7th 2013 |From the print edition

FOOTBALL’S transfer window may almost be viewed as a sport in its own right. Twice a year, in January and for two months during the summer, European clubs frantically buy and sell players. When the window slams shut, as it did on September 2nd, they are stuck with the squads they have assembled until the next one opens. Meanwhile, pundits pore over the transfer-market winners and losers, much as they would a weekend’s fixtures.

球员转会窗口的竞争都可以当作一项运动了。欧洲各俱乐部在每年的一月和夏季的两个月疯狂的买卖球员。当转会窗口关闭后,这次关闭是在9月2号,球队就定型了,只能等下次窗口再度开放才能重组。与此同时,专家们则研究转会市场的胜败双方,跟看周末球赛一样热情。

This summer English Premier League (EPL) clubs did record business. According to Deloitte, a professional-services firm, they spent a combined P 630m (dollars 985m) on new players. This is a new record, and far outstrips spending in other countries. The window’s most eye-catching deal, though, involved a player leaving England’s shores. The protracted pursuit of Gareth Bale, a Tottenham Hotspur forward, by Real Madrid, a Spanish club, ended only when the clubs agreed on a world-record P 85m fee.

今年夏天英超的球队做了破纪录的交易。根据德勤公司的统计数据,英超球队总共在新球员身上花费了6.3亿英镑,也就是9.85亿美元。这是一项新记录,远远将其他国家甩在身后。最引人注意的交易是一项英格兰本土与外国的交易。西班牙的皇家马德里俱乐部在追随了托特纳姆热刺的前锋贝尔之后,终于达成了一项破世界纪录的8500万英镑的交易。

Still, England remains football’s financial powerhouse. Net transfer spending by the EPL—the amount, after deals between English clubs has been stripped out, which flowed abroad—was P 370m. This compares with P 130m in France’s Ligue 1 and a P 95m surplus in Spain’s La Liga.

目前,英格兰仍然是足球界的金融中心。英超球员转会开支达到了3.7亿英镑,这仅仅是刨除国内交易后的国际交易。相比之下,法甲的转会费是1.3亿英镑,西甲的转会费只有9500亿英镑。

The main reason for EPL’s continued clout is a huge new television deal shared between British Telecom and BSkyB, which will run for the next three seasons. That will be worth an extra P 500m to the EPL this year, with each club on average P 25m better off. In 2011-12, the last season for which accounts are available, broadcasting accounted for half of the clubs’ combined P 2.4 billion revenue. The remainder was split between match-day revenue—mostly gate receipts—and commercial activities, such as sponsorship and merchandising. Deloitte estimates that, for the coming season, the clubs’ revenue will increase to P 3.1 billion, with the proportion coming from broadcasting rising to 55%.

英超大力引援的主要原因是英国电信公司与英国天空广播公司已经达成了新的巨额电视转播合同,签下了未来三个赛季的转播。预计这将会给英超带来5亿英镑的盈利,每个俱乐部平均获利2500万英镑。上赛季数据显示,广播节目带来的收入占总盈利24亿英镑的一半。另一半收入来自比赛日收入,主要是门票收入,以及商业活动,例如赞助和广告。德勤预计接下来的赛季,英超盈利将会随着广播节目所占比例55%的提升而达到31亿英镑。

Much of the new money will go directly to the players. In the 2011-12 season, EPL clubs shelled out P 1.65 billion on wages. This is likely to grow to P 2.2 billion for the coming season. The best performers earn well over P 100,000 a week; Mr Bale’s pay could be around P 300,000.

大量的新增资金直接进入球员口袋。11到12赛季,英超俱乐部总共发放了16.5亿英镑的工资。下赛季可能会增至22亿英镑。顶级球员们周薪超多10万英镑,而贝尔的周薪能达到30万英镑。

Yet despite the arresting figures, the days of clubs living beyond their means are coming to end. From this season, premier-league clubs will be bound by two sets of “financial fair play” rules. The first, implemented by UEFA, the European game’s governing body, looks at clubs’ finances over a three-year period and limits their permitted losses to euros45m (dollars 59m). Clubs that flout this will be subject to punishments ranging from a warning to a fine to being banned from European competitions. The EPL has also brought in its own rules. These allow clubs more leeway with their debt, but restrict increases to clubs’ wage bills to P 4m, unless they can secure new commercial deals. Teams that break these rules face a ban on transfer activity and will have points docked.

尽管面临这些天文数字,但是俱乐部正在摆脱亏损。从这个赛季开始,英超各球队将受两套财政性公平竞争规则限制。第一套规则由欧足联负责执行。三年一个周期,监督监察各俱乐部财务状况。限制开支赤字不得高于4500万欧元,也就是5900万美元。无视此法规者将受到惩罚,轻则警告罚款,重则取消欧洲赛事参赛资格。同时,英超也制定了一套规则,允许俱乐部有一定的债务自由,但是规定工资涨幅不得超过400万英镑,除非增加新的商业交易。违反这些规则的球队将面临禁止转会的处分,还会扣除积分。

Increased revenue means that most English clubs will comply with both rules. There is, however, uncertainty about Manchester City, a big-spending team owned by Sheikh Mansour, an Abu Dhabi royal. Its lavish transfer fees—the highest in the EPL—are funded, in part, by a P 400m sponsorship deal with Etihad, Abu Dhabi’s state airline. Under UEFA’s rules, it must prove that the airline has not paid more than the market value. Industry watchers are divided as to whether they will succeed. UEFA’s verdict is expected next year. Success on the pitch may now be determined as much by accountants and lawyers as by footballers and managers.

利润上涨意味着英超各俱乐部将会配合以上规则。然而,阿布手下开支巨大的曼城就不一定会遵守这些规定了。曼城是英超转会费最高的球队,资金部分来自于阿布的国家航空公司阿联酋航空4亿英镑的赞助。根据欧足联规定,曼城必须证明该航空公司所给赞助费未超过球队的市场价值。新规定能否会成功仍有争论。欧足联将会在明年推选一名裁判。看来,球队的成功不再只靠球员和教练了,还要有会计和律师助力。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
comply [kəm'plai]

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vi. 顺从,遵照,答应

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verdict ['və:dikt]

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n. 裁定,定论

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determined [di'tə:mind]

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adj. 坚毅的,下定决心的

 
split [split]

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n. 劈开,裂片,裂口
adj. 分散的

 
flout [flaut]

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v. 愚弄,轻视 n. 愚弄,轻视

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bale [beil]

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n. 包,捆,货物 n. 灾祸,不幸,悲痛 v. 将 .

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uncertainty [ʌn'sə:tnti]

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n. 不确定,不可靠,半信半疑 (学术)不可信度; 偏差

 
remainder [ri'meində]

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n. 剩余物,其他的人,残余
vt. 廉价出售

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transfer [træns'fə:]

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n. 迁移,移动,换车
v. 转移,调转,调任

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secure [si'kjuə]

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adj. 安全的,牢靠的,稳妥的
vt. 固定

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