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经济学人:巴拉圭的新总统

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The Americas

美洲
Paraguay's new president
巴拉圭的新总统
Cartes plays his cards
卡特高明的手段
Trickle-down economics in one of South America's poorest countries
南美最穷一国的滴流经济学
IN OCTOBER claims surfaced that Victor Bogado, a Paraguayan senator, had arranged two lucrative public jobs for his children's nanny.
十月宣言浮出水面, 巴拉圭的参议院议长柏佳都,为其孩子的保姆安排了两项有利可图的公共工作。
A few weeks later 23 of his peers—a majority—voted against stripping him of the immunity from criminal proceedings that Paraguayan legislators enjoy.
几周后,23位同僚,大多数反对剥夺巴拉圭立法者所享有的豁免刑事程序。
Instead of going unnoticed in a country where political clientelism has long been the norm, the story sparked outrage.
按理说国家出现政治上的庇护很正常可被忽略,反而故事引起了更多的愤怒。

Restaurants, petrol stations and beauty salons in the capital, Asuncion, put up signs naming the 23 shameless rats, and barring them as customers.

首都亚松森的餐馆,汽车加油站以及美容沙龙,公然张贴了广告名为23只不知羞耻的老鼠,禁止他们进店消费。
Two weeks later a senate committee overruled the vote for immunity.
两周后,参议院委员会豁免视此种行为属于无效选票。
The case of the golden nanny is part of a wider citizen revolt against political corruption.
金牌保姆的事件只是更多市民参与反对政治腐败的一部分。
In October the Supreme Court ruled that Daniel Vargas, a radio host, had the right to know the names and salaries of municipal employees.
十月份,最高法院判定电视台节目主持人丹尼尔·巴尔加斯,有权知道市政雇员的名字和他们的薪酬。
Six years earlier listeners had asked him to investigate; he went to court after being stonewalled.
早在6年前听众让其去调查,他在受阻后上了法庭。
Without public pressure the Supreme Court would never have dared to move against Congress, says his lawyer, Benjamín Fernandez.
若没有了公共压力,最高法院将绝不敢反对议会,他的律师本杰明·费尔南德兹说道。
Rather than obliging citizens to seek the information piecemeal, Paraguay's new president, Horacio Cartes, told public bodies to publish it, though many are dragging their feet.
而不是为了使有责任心的公众获取的是零碎的信息,巴拉圭的新任总统奥拉西奥·卡尔特,告诉公众去惩治此事,尽管许多人不愿意合作。
Mr Cartes, a tobacco magnate, is a political neophyte who only joined the Colorado party in order to run for office in April's general election.
卡尔特先生,烟草巨头,也是一名政治新秀,仅为科罗拉多党成员参加了四月普选。
The Colorados held power for 60 years, 35 as a notoriously corrupt dictatorship, before losing in 2008 to Fernando Lugo, a former bishop whose left-Liberal alliance promised to redistribute land and cut poverty.
科罗拉多党执政60年来,臭名昭著的腐败独裁者多达35名,于2008年失败于巴拉圭领导人费尔南多·卢戈,前任大主教,左倾自由主义联盟承诺重新分配土地以及治理贫穷。
In power Mr Lugo turned out to be weak and politically inept.
手握重权的卢戈不过是一名懦弱的笨拙的当政者。
After an unfairly abrupt, though constitutional, impeachment his Liberal vice-president, Federico Franco, replaced him in 2012. Lacking a strong internal candidate, the Colorados plumped for Mr Cartes.
尽管是合乎宪法的,他遭到了有失偏颇的突如其来的弹劾,副总统费德里科·弗朗哥于2012年取代了他。由于缺乏强大的内部候选人,科罗拉多政党选中了卡尔特先生。
Many assumed the new president would be his party's puppet.
许多人设想新任总统将会是其政党的傀儡。
Does his support for the anti-corruption fight show that the Colorados got more than they bargained for?
他反腐政策表明了科罗拉多意味着他们会获得比他们要求的更多。
On taking office in August, Mr Cartes named technically able outsiders to his cabinet and passed a fiscal-responsibility law limiting budget growth to 4% above inflation and the deficit to no more than 1.5% of GDP.
自从8月入职以来,卡特尔先生技巧性的给其内阁以外的人,并通过了一项财政法律限制其预算增长到4%通货膨胀以及财政赤字不高于国民生产总值的1.5%。
Since most spending goes on wages, that will squeeze patronage.
因为大多数花销都用于付薪酬,那将会丧失庇护。
A new law will allow the executive to auction infrastructure concessions without having to get approval from Congress, where the Colorado old guard holds sway.
新法将允许行政人员拍卖基础性设施让步,而无须得到由科罗拉多一股老保守派统治的议会的批准。
Some waterways should be auctioned in months, says Jose Molinas, a former World Bank official who is now minister of planning.
一些水道应该在近几个月内拍卖,Jose Molinas,前任世界银行的官员现任规划部部长。
Landlocked Paraguay relies on rivers to get its vast soya and beef exports to market. Intercity roads will follow.
被陆地包围的巴拉圭依靠河运来出口大量的豆类与牛肉。城市间的道路的处理也随之而来。
A law providing for disputes between government and concession-holders to be settled by international arbitration is planned for 2014.
一项解决政府以及让步性之间的争端将有国际仲裁部于2014年开启。
The economy is predicted to have grown by 13.6% in 2013.
2013年经济被预测已经增长了13.6%,
But that is mainly because of a bumper soya harvest after drought saw GDP shrink by 1.2% in 2012.
但是这主要是因为2012年国民生产总值减少了1.2%在豆制品丰收后。
Paraguay is one of South America's most unequal countries.
巴拉圭是南美最不公平的国家之一,
A third of its people are poor and 18% extremely so, while 6% of farms occupy 85% of farmland.
大约三分之一的人们贫穷,18%极端贫穷,仅有6%的农场就占据了85%的耕地。
Though Mr Lugo failed to reform landholding, partly because of opposition in Congress, he did introduce modest handouts for the poorest.
尽管卢戈进行私人性质耕地的改革失败,部分原因是因为议会的反对,他确实为最穷苦的人给予了最简单的救济品。
Mr Franco brought in an income tax, albeit at just 10% for the highest earners.
弗朗哥先生引进了收入税,尽管对收入最高的富人只征收10%的税收。
Mr Cartes, too, promises to cut poverty and create a fairer society.
卡特尔先生,也承诺消减贫困,创造一个相对公平的社会。
But his plans rely less on redistribution than on wooing foreign capital.
但是他的计划过度依靠借助外资而不是资源的重新分配重组。
He has ceaselessly plugged the opportunities offered by the coming infrastructure auctions, Paraguay's abundant land, cheap labour, light-touch regulation—and, of course, low taxes.
他执着于接洽即将到来的基础设施的拍卖,如巴拉圭的富饶的耕地,廉价劳动力,温和管理模式,当然,还有低税收。
He vetoed a levy on the export of soyabeans, the economy's mainstay.
他决定对豆类的出口进行征税,社会经济的主要来源。
A rise in land taxes is the only one planned.
耕地税的增长是唯一按照计划进行的,
He sometimes strikes an off-key note, as when he told Uruguayan businessmen that Paraguay aimed to be easy, like a beautiful woman.
有时候他的做派不是很合理,比如当他告诉乌拉圭商人巴拉圭头脑简单,就像一个徒有其表的美女。
But he has swiftly restored ties with Mercosur, a regional bloc from which Paraguay was suspended after the ousting of Mr Lugo.
但是他很快恢复了与南方共同市场,自卢戈被驱逐后,受人怀疑的巴拉圭所在的区域集团。
Mr Cartes has secured its readmission, partly by persuading Congress to ratify Venezuela's admission to the group.
卡特尔先生保证了巴拉圭重新获得认可,部分原因是因为说服了议会来修正委内瑞拉的入市资格。
It's in Paraguay's interests to be back inside Mercosur, he says. I don't want to waste my presidency on fights.
他说道:这返回南共市是巴拉圭的利益,我不想把时间浪费在争夺总统之位上面。
In Brazil strident calls for land reform faded when growth boosted jobs and salaries in cities.
在巴西疯狂叫嚣耕地改革的呼声已经褪去,当时城市工作岗位以及薪水均已经增长。
But even if Mr Cartes's brand of trickle-down economics shows promise, many obstacles remain.
但是即使卡特尔模式的滴流经济学表态承诺实施,但是仍然困难重重。
Paraguay lacks the skilled workers to build all the promised infrastructure.
巴拉圭缺乏技术工人来建造所有的承诺过的基础设施。
And the Colorado old guard will surely regroup. They are giving me time, says Mr Cartes.
科罗拉多老保守派势力势必会重组。
If I deliver results it'll be fine. He is counting on people power and openness to maintain momentum.
他们给予了我时间卡特尔先生说道,如果我传达了结果,事态将会好些。
People get used to things getting better. If you give them improvements they won't want to go back.
他依靠人民大众的力量,公开保持这种势头。人们已经习惯了越来越好,如果你改善了他们的生活,他们将不想倒退回去。
重点单词   查看全部解释    
candidate ['kændidit]

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n. 候选人,求职者

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approval [ə'pru:vəl]

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n. 批准,认可,同意,赞同

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levy ['levi]

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n. 征税,召集
vt. 征收,发动(战争

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pressure ['preʃə]

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n. 压力,压强,压迫
v. 施压

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executive [ig'zekjutiv]

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adj. 行政的,决策的,经营的,[计算机]执行指令

 
openness ['əupənnis]

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n. 公开;宽阔;率真

 
reform [ri'fɔ:m]

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v. 改革,改造,革新
n. 改革,改良

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investigate [in'vestigeit]

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v. 调查,研究
[计算机] 研究

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landlocked ['lændlɔkt]

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adj. 陆地包围的,内陆水域的

 
vast [vɑ:st]

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adj. 巨大的,广阔的
n. 浩瀚的太

 

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