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经济学人:熊彼特 将培根带回家

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Business

商业报道
Schumpeter
熊彼特
Bringing home the bacon
将培根带回家
Tiny Denmark is an agricultural superpower
小国丹麦是农业超级霸主
EVERY weekday 20,000 pigs are delivered to the Danish Crown company's slaughterhouse in Horsens, in central Denmark.
在每一个工作日里,2万只猪将被送入丹麦科王公司位于丹麦中部的霍尔森斯的屠宰场中。
They trot into the stunning room, guided by workers armed with giant fly swats.
他们受到持着巨型苍蝇拍的工人们驱赶,快步地跑进那令人震撼无比的房间中去。

They are hung upside down, divided in two, shaved of their bristles and scalded clean.

在那儿,他们被倒挂起来,一分为二,接着被刮去身上的猪鬃,再以白灼的方法清理干净。
A machine cuts them into pieces, which are then cooled, boned and packed.
一部机器将他们分割成块,进而冷却、去骨和包装起来。
The slaughterhouse is enormous, ten football pitches long with 11km of conveyor belts.
该公司的屠宰场巨大无比,约有十个足球场的长度,配有11公里长的传送带。
Its managers attend to the tiniest detail.
它的管理者们关注到了最微小的细节。
The fly-swatting workers wear green rather than white because this puts the pigs in a better mood.
由于绿色能使猪处于较好的心情,所以,驱赶猪群的工人们均着绿色服装而不是白色。
The cutting machine photographs a carcass before adjusting its blades to its exact contours.
切割机器会事先对畜体进行摄像,再以它真实的轮廓形态去调整刀片。
The company calibrates not only how to carve the flesh, but also where the various parts will fetch the highest prices: the bacon goes to Britain and the trotters to China.
另外,公司调整的不仅仅是对肉的处理方法,同时也对应调整了不同的部分所能卖出的最高价格销售之地:培根运往英国,而猪蹄运往中国。
Denmark is a tiny country, with 5.6m people and wallet-draining labour costs.
丹麦是一个拥有560万人口,且劳动力成本极高的小国。
But it is an agricultural giant, home to 30m pigs and a quiverful of global brands.
但她却是一个农业大国,在拥有3000万头猪之余,世界上闻名遐迩的农业品牌也聚集于此。
In 2011 farm products made up 20% of its goods exports.
在2011年,其农产品出口占总出口的百分之二十。
The value of food exports grew from 4 billion in 2001 to 16.1 billion in 2011.
食品出口贸易由2001年的400亿欧元上升至2011年的1610亿欧元。
The government expects it to rise by a further 6.7 billion by 2020.
截止至2020年,丹麦政府预期将会有更进一步的670亿欧元的增长。
Why, in a post-industrial economy, is the food industry still thriving?
在一个后工业化的经济体里,为何食品产业仍在蓬勃发展?
Much of the answer lies in a cluster in the central region of the country.
大部分答案可从国家中央区域的产业群中找得出。
Policymakers everywhere are obsessed by creating their own Silicon Valleys.
不管是何处的政策制定者,都渴望于建立属于他们自己的硅谷。
But Denmark's example suggests that the logic of clustering can be applied as well to ancient industries as to new ones.
但丹麦的例子展现出集群效应不仅对新产业,而对传统产业来说也同样适用。
In central Denmark just as in California, innovation is in the air, improving productivity is a way of life, and the whole is much greater than the sum of the parts.
在丹麦中央区就像在加州一样,空气中弥漫着创新的味道,改进生产率已是一种生活方式,而整体之和远比部分之和大。
Entrepreneurs see the future in meat and milk.
企业家们在肉和牛奶中看到了前景。
The cluster includes several big companies, which act as its leading investors: Danish Crown, Arla, Rose Poultry and DuPont Danisco.
这片产业群中,包含了几个作为主要投资者的大公司:丹麦科王、爱氏晨曦、Rose Poultry、杜邦丹尼斯克。
Plenty of smaller firms are also sprouting, which act as indicators of nascent trends and incubators of new ideas.
与此同时,大量的小型企业也在发展起步阶段。他们不仅是行业新趋势的引路明灯,还是创新理念的萌生之处。
Though the food industry, capital-intensive and tightly regulated, is rarely rich soil for entrepreneurs, in Denmark it is fertile.
因为资本密集和受到严格规管的特点,食品产业往往并不是企业家们的乐土,但是,在丹麦,这一行发展的条件却截然不同。
Several young companies are making information-technology tools for different bits of the business:
一些新近成立的公司,正在为不同的业务发展相对应的信息科技工具。
LetFarm for fields, Bovisoft for stables, AgroSoft for pigs, Webstech for grain.
LetFarm对应着土地资源管理, Bovisoft对应着牛棚管理, AgroSoft对应着猪的管理, Webstech对应着谷物的处理。
ISI Food Protection focuses on dealing with organisms that spoil food or spread poisoning.
ISI食品保护系统专注于处理会导致食品腐坏传播毒素的微生物。
InOMEGA3 specialises in food ingredients containing Omega-3 fatty acids, which are credited with various health-giving powers.
InOMEGA3则专注于食品原料中包含了Omega-3脂肪酸,而这被认为与多种不同的有益健康的因素相关。
Soy4you,develops alternatives to meat products.
Soy4you,则发展成为了肉类产品的替代品。
The cluster also has a collection of productivity-spurring institutions such as the Danish Cattle Research Centre and the Knowledge Centre for Agriculture.
产业群中也有一批致力于促进生产力的机构,比如丹麦牛类研究中心和农业知识中心等等。
Danish universities remain at the forefront of the agro-industry: at Danish Technical University 1,500 people work on food-related subjects.
丹麦的大学仍保持了在农用工业的方面的前沿:在丹麦技术大学,有1500人研究与食品相关的学科。
A tradition of public-private partnerships, which began with farmers forming co-operatives to improve production and marketing in the late 19th century, continues to flourish.
在十九世纪末,从旨在通过农民组织合作来优化生产与市场销售的公私合作开始,这样的传统如今仍在持续地蓬勃发展中。
An Agro Food Park near Aarhus, backed by the industry and the regional government, is nearing completion.
靠近奥胡斯的一个农业食品产业园区,在行业与地方政府的支持下,已接近完工。
It employs 800 people already and is expected to have 3,000 staff by 2020.
目前园区内已经雇佣了800名员工,同时预计到2020年为止将拥有3000名员工。
The Cattle Research Centre, for example, demonstrates that there are dozens of ways to boost bovine productivity.
例如,牛类研究中心表明他们有许多方法来提高牛的生产力。
Robots can do everything from milking cows to keeping them washed and brushed to mucking out their living quarters.
机器人可以做到从挤牛奶、让奶牛们保持清洁到将粪便清理出他们的生活区。
The milking robot can also act as a lab in the farm by analysing the milk for signs of health problems.
挤奶机器人也可以作为一个位于农场的实验室,即通过分析牛奶的成分,进而作为健康问题的反映。
Microchips can keep an eye on cows' behaviour. Carefully screened Viking semen can improve the quality of the stock.
微芯片能够保持着对牛只行为的监控。仔细筛选过的维京精液可以提高牛类血统的质量。
The word on everyone's lips is innovation.
挂在每个人嘴边的词都是创新。
Big companies are building centres to develop new products.
大公司正在建立新的中心以开发新的产品。
Arla is spending 36m on one in the Agro Food Park.
爱氏晨曦花费了3600万欧元在它位于农业食品产业园区的中心。
DuPont's centre in Aarhus is part of a global network with branches in America, Australia and China.
杜邦公司在奥胡斯的中心则是它囊括着美国、澳洲、中国分支的全球网络的一部分。
They are also abandoning their insular ways, collaborating with startups and sponsoring food festivals and star chefs.
他们也放弃了原本狭隘的方式,开始与初创的新公司合作,以及赞助美食节和明星厨师。
Universities are adding departments: Aarhus now has a centre devoted to consumer behaviour in regard to food and DTU is focusing on bio-silicon—applying IT to food.
大学们正在增加各项部门:奥胡斯的一个研发中心致力于研究关于食品方面的消费者行为;而DTU专注于生物硅---一项将IT技术应用于食物产业的尝试。
Land of milk and honey-roast ham
牛奶与火腿之地
If all this spending on innovation is to pay off and Denmark's food industry is to continue to thrive, the country's farmers will have to overcome formidable challenges at home and abroad.
为了确保投入到创新研发中的一切花费都有所回报,同样地,为了确保丹麦的食品产业能够持续繁荣,当地的农民们必须克服来自国内来的巨大挑战。
Among the Danish public, distaste for factory farming is increasing. Borgen, a popular television political drama, devoted an entire episode to criticising pig farming.
在国内,一股对工厂化农耕的厌恶正在持续升温。
Demand is shifting from the European Union, which consumes more than 60% of Denmark's food exports, to emerging countries, some of which are becoming agricultural powers in their own right.
一档十分受欢迎的政治类电视剧《权利的堡垒》,曾用了整整一集来批判养猪业。而国外的需求正从占食品出口交易量达60%的欧盟向新兴国家转移。在这些新兴国家中,有一部正凭借自身的实力发展成农业强国。
Growing pressure on natural resources such as water and feedstock could render some of the industry unsustainable.
像水源和种子库存短缺等等的资源问题,令行业压力持续增加,并可能致使产业中部分环节难以为继。
Against that, food is a growing industry: demand is set to rise by 60% by 2030, and Denmark's food cluster is as well placed as any to benefit.
虽然如此,食品产业仍拥有良好的发展前景:到2030年为止,需求将增长60%;丹麦的食品产业群会处于优势地位,进而盈利。
Its companies have lots of expertise in food safety, for example: China has identified Denmark as a model.
食品公司们有很多食品安全方面的专业技术,比如,中国目前已确定了将丹麦作为其模板来发展。
Danish firms are thriving at the high as well as the low end of the business:
丹麦的公司们正在积极发展着从高到低的各项业务:
Noma, a celebrated restaurant in Copenhagen, has helped to create a cult of Nordic food, including pig's tails, supplied by Danish Crown.
一家位于哥本哈根的著名餐馆Noma,帮助创作完成了一批北欧风味的食物,包括由丹麦科王公司提供的猪尾巴。
Above all, perhaps, Danes are remarkably hard-headed about making money out of blood and soil: the Danish Crown slaughterhouse organises regular tours for visitors, including schoolchildren, with views of the killing line.
总而言之,或许,丹麦人对于从鲜血与土壤中赚钱表现得异常冷静:丹麦科王公司的屠宰场会定期组织游客团对他们的屠宰生产线进行参观,而游客中还包括学生。
重点单词   查看全部解释    
flourish ['flʌriʃ]

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vi. 繁荣,茂盛,活跃,手舞足蹈
vt. 挥

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protection [prə'tekʃən]

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n. 保护,防卫

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threat [θret]

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n. 威胁,凶兆
vt. 威胁, 恐吓

 
cult [kʌlt]

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n. 宗教膜拜仪式,异教,狂热崇拜,个人崇拜

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innovation [.inəu'veiʃən]

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n. 创新,革新

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dealing ['di:liŋ]

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n. 经营方法,行为态度
(复数)dealin

 
global ['gləubəl]

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adj. 全球性的,全世界的,球状的,全局的

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pressure ['preʃə]

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n. 压力,压强,压迫
v. 施压

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fertile ['fə:tail]

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adj. 肥沃的,富饶的,能繁殖的,多产的,(创造力)丰

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silicon ['silikən]

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n. 硅

 

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