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经济学人:庇护系统遭滥用 欧盟或将限制巴尔干游客的签证?

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Europe The EU and the Balkans

欧洲 欧盟与巴尔干
Asylum system abuse
庇护系统的滥用
Will the EU reimpose visas for travellers from Balkan countries?
欧盟是否会重新限制来自巴尔干的旅行者签证?
“Fake asylum seekers”, warns a poster in Belgrade airport, “risk everything.” It is three years since Serbs, Macedonians and Montenegrins got the freedom to travel without a visa to Europe’s 26-member Schengen zone. Bosnians and Albanians received it a year later. They see it as the single most valued prize in the European integration process.
贝尔格莱德机场的一张海报这么警示道:“假冒的庇护寻觅者会不择手段。”三年前,塞尔维亚、马其顿共和国和黑山共和国的公民获得了到欧洲26个申根国家地区可以免签证的待遇。一年之后,波斯尼亚和阿尔巴尼亚也紧接着获得了这个权利。他们视其为欧洲一体化进程中举足轻重的嘉奖。

欧盟或将限制巴尔干旅行者签证.jpg

The five Balkan countries may not be allowed to keep it. The reason is surging numbers of asylum seekers, especially from Serbia and Macedonia. In 2009, before visas were lifted for them, 9,860 of their citizens applied for asylum in the European Union (EU). In 2012, with incomplete data to October, the figure stood at 33,530. Serbian citizens in Germanymade 10,412 applications and Macedonians 6,012. Serbs topped the list of asylum seekers there, well ahead of Afghans and Syrians.

这五个巴尔干国家也许会被剥夺这项权利。其原因是庇护寻觅者人数扶摇直上,尤其是来自塞尔维亚和马其顿共和国的。在2009年,当时签证还未对该二国解禁 ,有9860名公民申请了欧盟的庇护。在2012年,截止到十月的不完全统计,这个数字已经攀升到33,530。德国的塞尔维亚公民提出了10,412份申请,马其顿人则达到6,012。榜单上塞尔维亚鹤立鸡群,远远地甩开了阿富汗和叙利亚。
“The increasing abuse of the asylum system is not acceptable,” said Hans-Peter Friedrich, the German interior minister in October. “The huge inflow of Serbian and Macedonian citizens must be stopped immediately.” In October six EU interior ministers demanded faster action to allow the suspension of visa-free travel.
“对庇护系统的滥用日趋泛滥,这是不可容忍的。”德国的内政大臣汉斯—皮特·弗雷德里奇在十月说道,“ 必须立即制止大批塞尔维亚和马其顿共和国公民涌入我国 。”当月,六名欧盟内政大臣要求迅速采取措施停止免签证旅行。
What the figures do not show is that officials estimate that 95% of the asylum seekers are poor Roma. Life maybe tough back home, but there is no overt persecution. In Serbia and Macedonia, Roma are better integrated into society than in most other countries. These asylum applicants know they won’t get it. From 2009 to 2011 of 19,650 Serbian applicants in Germany, Sweden and Luxembourg only 15 were allowed to stay. But they are trying their luck thanks to “the wide availability of information about benefits for asylum seekers”, says a new report by the European Stability Initiative (ESI), a think-tank.
数据并未显示出的是,据官方估计,95%的寻求庇护者都是贫穷的罗姆人(即吉普赛人)。在家乡的生活也许艰苦,但那里没有公开的迫害。相比于大多数其他国家,他们在塞尔维亚和马其顿能够更好地融入社会。这些庇护的申请者深知他们难以得到庇护。从2009年到2011年,德国、瑞典、卢森堡的19,650位塞尔维亚申请者中只有15位获准留下。但由于“庇护寻觅者得到各种好处的信息广为传播”,他们仍在试运气。这是由名为欧洲稳定机构的智囊团最近的一份报告提出的。
During the months of waiting while authorities decide whether a claim is bogus or genuine the state provides applicants with money, accommodation, health care, schooling and so on. Given that in Macedonia the average monthly wage is 330 euros ($436) it clearly makes economic sense to head north for a few months.
在等待当局判断避难申请属实与否的几个月里,该国为申请者提供金钱、住宿、医保、教育等等。考虑到马其顿的平均月薪是330欧元(436美元),经济上看来北上数月是合情合理的。
Visas could be reimposed for Serbs and Macedonians this year. If this happens, says a Serbian official who asked not to be named, this would be seen as “rejection and punishment” and harm already falling support for joining the EU. Even worse, it may incite reprisals against Roma.
今年内可能会对塞尔维亚人和马其顿人重新提出签证的要求。如果这一切发生的话,据一名要求匿名的塞尔维亚官员说,会被视为“拒绝与惩治”,对加入欧盟日渐式微的支持也会被进一步挫伤。更糟糕的是,这可能煽动对罗姆人的报复性行为。
Tanja Fajon, a Slovene member of the European Parliament, believes some EU politicians are using the controversy to score political points, especially in Germany, which has elections this year. Carl Bildt,Sweden’s foreign minister, says that the visa-free regime needs to be protected but that action should be taken at “both ends of the problem”.
一位欧洲议会的斯洛文尼亚成员汤加·法琼认为一些欧盟政治家正利用争议性行为为自己的政绩增光添彩,尤其是在年内将迎来大选的德国。瑞典的外务大臣卡尔·比尔迪特表示免签证政策需要得到保护,但应当在“问题的两端”采取行动。
Although Macedonia has now begun stopping some people leaving if they don’t have a certain amount of money per day for a trip, such tactics teeter on the racist and the illegal. The obvious answer, argues Gerald Knaus, the head of ESI, is that Germany and other countries should speed up decisions on asylum applications from safe Balkan countries. After the Swiss did this the numbers applying tumbled. But when in July 2012 the German Constitutional Court ordered a threefold increase of benefits for asylum-seeking families, numbers surged.
尽管马其顿已经开始阻止一些日均旅费没有达到一定数额的人离境,但该政策摇摆于种族歧视与违反法律之间。欧洲稳定机构的首席杰拉德·克劳斯主张道,最明显的答案就是德国和其他国家加快对来自安全的巴尔干国家的庇护申请的审批。在瑞士这么做之后申请人数锐减。但在2012年7月当德国立宪法院要求将庇护寻求家庭的利益增加三倍之后,人数又猛然上升。翻译:袁航

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