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超级大国的兴衰(视频+MP3+中英字幕) 第287期:俄罗斯和平时期(19)

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With regard to the Russian peasants, Nicholas chose the path of least resistance.

对于俄国农民,尼古拉选择了阻力最小的途径
Though Nicholas himself regarded serfdom as evil,
虽然尼古拉本人觉得农奴制是罪恶的
the nobility was the only possible means of governing Russia's vast spaces, and serf labor propped up the nobility.
贵族却是唯一可能对俄国广阔的疆域实施控制的人,农奴的劳动支撑着贵族阶层
Rightly suspecting that Poles had joined the opposition societies under Alexander the First,
尼古拉非常正确地猜测到波兰有可能加入了亚历山大一世统治时期的反动团体
Nicholas the First refused to call himself King of Poland.
尼古拉一世拒绝称自己为波兰国王
He withdrew the rights Alexander had given the Poles until they revolted in 1830.
在波兰1830年革命以前,他收回了亚历山大给波兰的各项权利
Within a year, Poland had been reconquered and reabsorbed into the Russian empire.
一年内,波兰又被重新征服了,并且重新纳入俄国领土
俄罗斯风光

For the rest of his reign, Nicholas tried to turn the Poles into Russians or "Russify" them.

在他统治的其余的时间里,尼古拉企图把波兰人变成俄国人或者说试图俄罗斯化他们
He also continued Catherine's war against the Ottoman Empire,
他也继续了凯瑟琳对奥斯曼帝国的战争
trying to achieve her goal of returning Istanbul or Constantinople to Orthodoxy and gaining Russia an outlet on the Mediterranean Sea.
战争目的是为了将伊斯坦布尔和康斯坦丁堡重新转化为东正教以及为俄国获得地中海的出海口
His greatest successes were in the Caucasus where he continued his brothers often brutal policies against nationalities such as the Chechans.
他取得的最大的成功是在高加索地区在那里他沿用了他哥哥对像车臣这样的少数民族的残酷政策
Besides expanding the boundaries of the Russian Empire, Nicholas again wanted to maintain order and monarchy all throughout Europe!
除了为俄国开疆拓土之外,尼古拉还想控制欧洲的秩序
This could be termed an example of Pax Russica.
这可以被看做是俄国强权下的和平的例证

重点单词   查看全部解释    
orthodoxy ['ɔ:θə.dɔksi]

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n. 正统说法,正教,信奉正教

 
outlet ['autlet]

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n. 出口,出路,通风口,批发商店

 
expanding [iks'pændiŋ]

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扩展的,扩充的

 
brutal ['bru:tl]

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adj. 野蛮的,残暴的

联想记忆
achieve [ə'tʃi:v]

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v. 完成,达到,实现

 
vast [vɑ:st]

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adj. 巨大的,广阔的
n. 浩瀚的太

 
opposition [.ɔpə'ziʃən]

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n. 反对,敌对,在野党

 
resistance [ri'zistəns]

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n. 抵抗力,反抗,反抗行动;阻力,电阻;反对

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serf [sə:f]

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n. 农奴,奴隶

 
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