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BBC英语六分钟(MP3+中英字幕) 第249期:水葬

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This is a download from BBC Learning English. To find out more, visit our website. 6 Minute English from BBC Learning English. com.

本文来自BBC Learning English。如需获得更多内容请访问我们的网站。BBC Learning English. com 英语六分钟节目。
Dan: Hello and welcome to 6 Minute English – the show that brings you an interesting topic, authentic listening practice and six new items of vocabulary. I'm Dan…
大家好,欢迎收听英语六分钟节目。该节目会向您呈现有趣的话题,纯正的听力练习以及六个新词汇。我是丹。
Neil: And I'm Neil. In this episode we'll be discussing water burial.
我是尼尔。在本期节目中,我们要谈论的是水葬。
Dan: Yes. It's a bit of a bleak subject, I'm afraid.
是的。这个话题可能让人有点沮丧。
Neil: Something which is bleak is unpleasant or without hope.
沮丧是指不愉快的,没有希望的。
Dan: And, do you know what's really bleak? It's this week's question. On average, how many people die each hour? a) six thousand b) sixty thousand c) six hundred thousand
你知道真正让人沮丧的是什么吗?是今天的问题。平均每小时有多少人死亡呢?a) 六千 b) 六万 c) 六十万
Neil: I am going to guess b) sixty thousand.
我猜是六万。
Dan: And we'll find out if you're right or not at the end of this show. So, the actual figure is 55m people each year. Now, religious or not, there is a practical issue to be dealt with, which is, Neil?
在节目的最后,我们再来看你的回答是否正确。其实,每年有5500万人死亡。无论你信宗教与否,都必须要解决一个实际问题,是什么呢,尼尔?
Neil: What to do with the body?
如何处理尸体?

bbc6fz249.png

Dan: Exactly! So what are the options for the average person?

没错!一般人会选择怎样做呢?
Neil: Well, there's burial, or there's cremation.
土葬或火化。
Dan: Burial is when a body is put into the earth and cremation is when a body is burnt. But there are big problems with both. For example, what two things do most people need in order to be buried?
土葬是指将尸体埋进土里,火化是指将尸体烧掉。但这两种选择都存在很大的问题。例如,土葬时,大部分人都需要哪两样东西呢?
Neil: Well, a coffin – or a box to put the body in and a grave. That's the place the coffin and body go into.
一副棺材,也就是放置尸体的盒子。还有一座坟墓,也就是放棺材和尸体的地方。
Dan: Exactly, but coffins are most often made of wood. In the US they use four million acres of forest every year just to make coffins. And as for graves, cemeteries are beginning to get overcrowded – there's no space left! After all, dying is not exactly a new thing! It's been happening for years.
是的。但棺材大多由木头制成。在美国,每年有四百万英亩的森林被用来做棺材。至于坟墓,墓地已经开始拥挤了,没有空地了。毕竟,死亡不是一件新鲜事。年年都会有人死亡。
Neil: Aha, but with cremation, there's no space needed. And they burn gas to dispose of the body. That's got to be better.
但如果火化的话,就不用占地了。火化通过燃烧气体来处理尸体。这种方式会好一些。
Dan: You'd think so, but no. I'll let Sahar Zand, reporter for the BBC, explain why.
你是这样想的。但其实不是的。我们还是让BBC记者萨哈·赞德来解释一下吧。
During the process, a number of toxins can be emitted into our environment, including mercury from dental fillings. Cremation also has a carbon cost. With the energy used to process one body, you could actually heat a home for the best part of a week in winter
在火化过程中,很多毒素被释放到环境中,其中包括补牙填充物中的汞。而且火化需要消耗碳。处理尸体所需的能量,足够给一个屋子供暖一周。
Neil: So cremation can release toxins, or poisons, into the environment and it comes with a very high energy cost – enough to heat a home for almost a week! OK. I can see a smug look in your eye, Dan. What do you have up your sleeve?
所以火化会把有毒物质释放到环境中,而且需要消耗很多能量——足够给一个屋子供暖一周。丹,看你那洋洋得意的表情,你是不是有什么备用的方法?
Dan: It's the latest thing. Water burial.
最后一个方法是水葬。
Neil: Water burial?
水葬?
Dan: This is where the body is put into an alkali solution and heated to 150 degrees centigrade. This breaks down the tissue and leaves only the skeleton.
水葬是把尸体放入碱性溶液中,然后加热至150摄氏度。这样人体组织就被溶解,只剩下骨头。
Neil: Interesting.
有意思。
Dan: Yes! It has huge advantages over cremation.
是的。这比火化更具优势。
Neil: Such as?
例如?
Dan: Well for one thing, it takes only 4 hours to finish. It follows the same process as when a body decomposes, but quicker.
首先,水葬仅需4个小时的时间。这与尸体分解的过程一样,但速度更快一些。
Neil: When something decomposes it breaks down and decays. Ok, anything else?
decompose是指某物分解并腐烂。还有其他的吗?
Dan: It uses much less energy. Each body is weighed and then the computer calculates exactly how much of everything is needed.
水葬消耗的能量少。每一具尸体都需要称重,然后计算机会计算出水葬所消耗的能量。
Neil: Ok, it's more efficient too. Why are you smiling?
这样也更有效率。你笑什么?
Dan: This is the best part! Listen to Sahar again.
下面才是最精彩的部分。我们再来听听萨哈是怎么说的。
All that's left at this point is a brittle skeleton and any artificial implants that they may have had in their body– and they come out almost as good as new. There's even talk of sending the implants to the developing world, where they can benefit populations that don't have access to them, because they're very expensive.
剩下的就是一副易碎的骨架,以及人们生前移入体内的所有移植物。移植物依旧完好。我们还可以将这些移植物捐给发展中国家,造福那些接触不到这些东西的人们,因为移植物的成本相当高昂。
Neil: So after the process you have a brittle, or easy to break, skeleton and any implants that they had inside them.
水葬结束之后,还剩一副易碎的骨架,以及人们生前移入体内的所有移植物。
Dan: Implants are artificial additions to the body, such as plastic hips or an artificial heart. And they're clean! They can be recycled and given to someone who needs them! Isn't that cool?
移植物是指身体上的人造替代品,例如假肢和人造心脏。这些移植物很干净,可以回收利用,送给那些需要的人。是不是很酷?
Neil: So, what happens to the skeleton?
那骨架怎么办?
Dan: It gets ground up into dust and put in a jar to give to the family – exactly the same as a traditional cremation. I love it! Sign me up! Would you like to give it a shot?
骨架会化为尘土,放进罐子里交给其家人——和传统的火化一样。我喜欢这个!帮我申请一下!你不想试试看吗?
Neil: Well, I can't answer that question. But can I have the answer to our quiz question?
我不想回答这个问题。但是你能告诉我今天问题的答案吗?
Dan: Of course. I asked: On average, how many people die each hour? a) six thousand b) sixty thousand c) six hundred thousand
当然。我问你,平均每小时有多少人死亡?a) 六千 b) 六万 c) 六十万
Neil: I said b) sixty thousand.
我说的是六万。
Dan: And you, my friend, are dead in the water. Unfortunately, it's a) six thousand
我的朋友,你答错了。很不幸,答案是六千。
Neil: Ok. Well that's probably better, isn't it?
这样更好,不是吗?
Dan: Yes.
是的。
Neil: Shall we have a look at the vocabulary then?
接下来我们复习一下今天学到的词汇吧?
Dan: Certainly. Our first word was bleak meaning something unhappy, unpleasant or without hope. What types of things do we typically describe as bleak, Neil?
当然。第一个单词是沮丧的,指不开心的,不愉快的,没有希望的。我们通常用bleak这个词来描述什么呢?
Neil: Oh, the weather in the UK can be bleak. It's very, very dark in the winter. Next we had grave. A grave is a hole in the earth where a body is placed. However, there is another use.
英国的天气是阴郁的。英国的冬天非常非常暗。之后我们谈到了坟墓。坟墓是指地上的洞,把尸体放进这个洞里。然而,这个单词还有其他用法。
Dan: Yes. We can talk about a situation being grave. The outbreak of war is a very grave situation for many people. Then we had toxin. A toxin is a substance which is poisonous. Have you ever been poisoned by a toxin, Neil?
没错。我们可以说形势严峻。对很多人来说,战争的爆发会让形势变得非常严峻。然后我们谈到了毒素。它是指有毒的物质。你中过毒吗?
Neil: Well, I suppose so, yes. I've had food poisoning and that's caused by toxins. After that was decompose. When something decomposes, it breaks down and decays. Much like when fruit goes bad and turns black and then becomes liquid.
中过。我曾经食物中毒,由有毒物质所致。后来我们还提到分解,decompose是指某物分解并腐烂。就像水果变质、发黑,然后成为液体。
Dan: Then we had brittle. Something which is brittle is easily broken. For example, Neil?
之后我们提到了易碎的。是指很容易破碎的。举个例子,尼尔?
Neil: Glass, crockery, tiles and some plastic. Crisps! And finally we had implant. An implant is something artificial which has been put into the body – such as an artificial heart or a replacement hip. Would you like to have any implants, Dan?
玻璃、陶器、瓷砖、某些塑料。还有薯片!最后我们讲到移植物。移植物是指被移入人体的人造替代品,例如人造心脏或假肢。你想移植什么?
Dan: I'd quite like robotic legs. Then I could run faster than anyone!
我想安个机器人腿。这样我可以跑得比任何人都快!
Neil: Well, we've run out of time, so that's the end of today's 6 Minute English. Please join us again soon!
节目已接近尾声,今天的英语六分钟到这里就结束了。我们下期再会!
Dan: And we are on social media too - Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and YouTube. See you there.
欢迎大家在Facebook、Twitter、Instagram 和YouTube上收听我们的节目。
Both: Bye!
再见!
6 Minute English from the BBC.
BBC英语六分钟。

译文属可可原创,仅供学习和交流使用,未经允许不得转载

重点单词   查看全部解释    
tissue ['tiʃu:]

想一想再看

n. (生物的)组织,织物,薄绢,纸巾

 
jar [dʒɑ:]

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n. 不和谐,刺耳声,震动,震惊,广口瓶
vi

联想记忆
benefit ['benifit]

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n. 利益,津贴,保险金,义卖,义演
vt.

联想记忆
figure ['figə]

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n. 图形,数字,形状; 人物,外形,体型
v

联想记忆
liquid ['likwid]

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adj. 液体的,液态的
n. 液体

 
artificial [.ɑ:ti'fiʃəl]

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adj. 人造的,虚伪的,武断的

联想记忆
substance ['sʌbstəns]

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n. 物质,实质,内容,重要性,财产

联想记忆
skeleton ['skelitn]

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n. 骨架,纲要,骨骼,骨瘦如柴的人或动物,家丑

 
efficient [i'fiʃənt]

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adj. 效率高的,胜任的

联想记忆
unpleasant [ʌn'pleznt]

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adj. 使人不愉快的,讨厌的

 

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