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为何万千美国人用不上高速网络

来源:可可英语 编辑:hepburn   VIP免费外教试听课 |  可可官方微信:ikekenet

I want to tell you my secret now. I see....

我想跟你说个秘密。我看见……
How does this circle make you feel?
看到这个圈圈惊不惊喜意不意外?
Do you want to know what Haley Joel Osment says in The Sixth Sense?
你想知道海利·乔·奥斯蒙在《灵异第六感》中说了什么吗?
What about this noise?
那听到这个噪音呢?
For many Americans, slow internet or no internet is still a reality,
对很多美国人而言,网速慢甚至没有网络仍然是一种现实
and the internet speed in Nashville, Tennessee,
而且,田纳西州纳什维尔的网速
might not be as fast in Nashville, Kansas.
可能还没有堪萨斯州纳什维尔的网速快
Besides missing Stranger Things,
除了看不到《怪奇物语》,
having a slow connection can mean increased health risks,
网速慢还意味着要面临更大的健康风险
a limited education, or having less money,
意味着受教育机会受限以及收入更少
all of which, creates a divided country, because the fact is:
而这些因素又会将国家分成不同阶级,因为事实就是:
all American internet is not equal.
美国各个地区的网络资源不平等
In 2015, The FCC defined “broadband”
2015年,美国通信委员会将“宽带”定义为
as internet with download speeds of at least 25 Megabits per second and uploads of at least 3.
下行 25Mbps以上,上行 3Mbps以上的网络
That basically means, a constant connection capable of streaming videos,
这基本上也就意味着可以连续播放流式视频,
sending messages, and transferring data on multiple devices..
发送短信,交换数据,而且是同时使用多个设备
Overall, 10 percent of Americans don't have broadband.
总体上讲,10%的美国人都没有宽带。
But rural areas suffer most.
但情况最糟糕的还是乡村地区。
39 percent of rural Americans, about 23 million people, don't have high-speed internet.
美国39%,大约2300万,的乡村人口用不到高速网络
This map shows where broadband is available and areas it has yet to reach.
这张地图显示了美国有宽带的地方以及没有宽带的地方
In places where broadband adoption is higher,
在宽带使用率较高的地方,
so is the number of people who've earned a college degree.
拥有大学学位的人更多
Fewer people are unemployed, and the rates of poverty are also lower.
没有工作的人更少,贫困的几率也更小
Without fast internet,
没有较快的网速,
rural Americans have a difficult time accessing government services, like Medicare.
乡村地区很难打开政府的服务网站,比如医疗网站。
And as education moves online, students struggle to complete assignments at home.
同时,随着教育逐渐往线上转移,乡村地区的学生回家后很难完成作业。
In a few rural districts, superintendents have loaded school buses with wi-fi
在个别乡村地区,当地的负责人在校车上安装了wifi,
and parked them overnight in neighborhoods where kids need it to do their homework.
晚上就把车停在需要完成线上作业的学生所住的社区里
These communities would benefit from broadband,
宽带能服务到这些社区
so why don't they have it?
那他们为什么没有宽带呢?
In cities, most broadband is “wireline”,
城市里大部分宽带都是“有线网络”
which typically means it is delivered through fiber optic cables that have been laid in the ground.
显然,这意味着网络是通过埋在地下的光缆输送的
Laying cables is expensive, but there's an incentive for providers:
埋光缆成本较高,但电信供应商法们有一个动机:
high population density means hundreds of people pay to access the same network.
人口密度大意味着同一网络有数百人付费
In rural areas, that's not the case.
农村地区的情况则并非如此。
So large telecoms, like AT&T and Comcast,
所以美国电话电报公司和康卡斯特这类大电信商
don't prioritize extending cable lines if they only reach a few people.
不会在用户较少的地方铺设光缆
But there is an alternative, and that's “wireless” broadband:
但是,还有另外一个办法,那就是“无线”宽带。
which is either beamed from a satellite,
无线宽带通过卫星收发信号,
or relayed from the nearest fixed wireless point by antennas.
或是用天线从最近的无线接入点转播信号
In places like Appalachia or The Rocky Mountains,
在阿巴拉契亚或是落基山脉等地区,
a wireless system can be an effective way to provide internet.
无线网络系统能够有效地提供网络服务
But its quality is not as reliable as wireline.
但是,无线的稳定性赶不上有线
Outside of traditional providers,
除了上述传统的网络供应商,
a few tech companies are trying to create new wireless options
一些技术公司也在尝试开发
that could be used in rural areas around the world.
能够在世界各国的农村地区使用的新型无线网络
This video is from Project Loon:
下面的视频来自Loon项目
Alphabet's internet-beaming balloon system
谷歌Alphabet公司开发了发射网络信号的气球,
designed to connect people in remote areas using wireless technology.
以便使用无线技术覆盖偏远地区的人群
Like Loon, Facebook also has its own wireless project:
跟Loon项目一样,Facebook也有自己的无线项目:
a solar-powered drone called Aquila,
一个名为“Aquila”的太阳能驱动无人机
which Mark Zuckerberg hopes will help reach, “half the world's population -- 4 billion people –
马克·扎克伯格(Facebook CEO)希望它能够惠及“半数世界人口”——40亿——
[who] still can't access the internet.”
而这些人现在都没能用上网络
And then, there's Microsoft,
接下来是微软公司
which is focusing on rural broadband, here in America.
微软公司主要关注的是这里,也就是美国乡村的宽带情况
wewe

Their plan is to send wireless internet

他们的计划是
using unlicensed television frequencies, called “white spaces”
通过利用空闲的电视广播频段,也即“空白频段”,提供无线网路接入服务
While these companies pursue futuristic projects that focus on wireless,
尽管这些公司所研发的都是充满未来感,且主要目标是无线网络的项目
a proven example for providing wireline connections, in the US,
然而,一个提供有线网络接入服务的成功案例,就在美国,
lies in the opposite direction: The Past.
却与无线网络背道而驰:在过去。
In 1935, President Roosevelt created The Rural Electrification Administration,
1935年,罗斯福总统成立了农村电气化管理局
or “REA”, to deliver electricity to rural America.
简称“REA”,专为美国乡村地区通电
Before then, most Americans receiving electricity got it from private companies.
在那之前,大部分用电的美国人都是从私企手里买电,
But The REA changed that.
“REA”改变了这一状况。
It loaned federal funding to electric cooperatives that built power lines private companies wouldn't.
私企不愿意铺的电路,管理局给电力公司提供联邦基金,让电力公司铺
Within a few decades, most of America was electrified
几十年内,大部分美国家庭都通了电
and now some of those same co-ops are providing internet.
曾经铺设电路的电力公司中有个别公司现已开始提供网络接入服务。
But unlike electrification, which relied almost entirely on co-ops,
然而,网络不同于电力,电力输送基本上全是靠电力公司,
there are many models for deploying broadband.
部署宽带的公司则有很多。
For example, the city of Cedar Falls, Iowa built its own municipal network
例如,爱荷华州的锡达福尔斯市就成立了自己的市政网络
and later used a portion of a federal grant to extend the network to nearby rural communities.
之后,又用联邦紧贴给周边的乡村社区接入了网络
“We are seizing the potential of the internet and other technologies.”
“我们抓住了互联网等技术的机遇”
For the past two decades, presidents have been allocating federal dollars for high-speed internet.
过去的二十年里,总统们给修建高速网络分配了联邦基金
“We must bring the promise of broadband technology to millions of Americans.”
“我们必须让宽带技术走进千家万户”
But rural broadband has been an evolving challenge.
但农村的宽带一直是一个问题
"When you look at the speeds,
“农村的网速问题,
we're going to need for all the apps and the videos,
我们上各大应用,看视频,
and all the data, new software that is constantly coming onto market.
获取各种数据,获取陆续上市的各种软件所需的网速
We've got to keep pace. We've got to be up to speed."
我们需要同步发展。我们得加快速度。”
President Obama increased funding
奥巴马总统提高了用于农村网络接入的基金数目,
and enabled municipal networks like the one in Cedar Falls, which are prohibited in other states.
他还支持锡达福尔斯市那种市政网络,这种网络在其他城市是禁用的
Now, President Trump is calling for even more investment,
现在,特朗普总统呼吁在这方面投入更多资金
while also scaling back Obama's policies.
尽管他还是缩减了奥巴马的政策
Standing near a tractor in June,
六月,特朗普总统站在一个拖拉机前
President Trump announced his new infrastructure plan.
宣布了一项新的基础设施计划。
That is why I will be including a provision in our infrastructure proposal –$1 trillion dollar proposal,
这就是我为什么要在我们的基础设施计划——一个万亿美元计划——里加入一个条件
you'll be seeing it very shortly
不久,大家就能看到
to promote and foster enhanced broadband access for rural America, also!
这一计划将用于改善美国农村宽带接入情况
The speech drew a big applause in Iowa,
特朗普的这一演讲在爱荷华州引起了热烈反响
but Trump's commitment may have been misleading.
但特朗普的承诺或许有一定的误导性,
Not only because the proposal has not arrived yet,
不仅仅是因为这一项目还未兑现,
but, less than two months after his speech, the FCC outlined priorities for the new administration,
还以为,他发表演讲之后不到两个月,美国通信委员会就概述了新政府的首要任务,
Including a suggestion to set a lower mobile broadband benchmark of 10 Megabits per second.
包括建议将移动宽带的基准下调至10M/s。
That's roughly equivalent to 4G mobile phone coverage,
这基本上相当于覆盖移动4G
which most of America already receives from major providers.
而大部分美国人已经从一些主要的供应商那里接入了4G网络
So if the broadband benchmark becomes 10,
因此,如果宽带基准变成了10M/s,
nearly all of America would be covered
那几乎整个美国都已经覆盖到了,
and the government could claim they've fulfilled their promise to increase rural broadband.
政府也可以说他们实现了扩大农村宽带覆盖率的承诺了
But in reality, all they've done is redefined what it means to offer high speed internet.
但实际上,他们所做的不过是重新定义什么叫告诉网络
It would be a standard sufficient for social media and other apps,
那种网络社交媒体之类的应用基本上是够用了,
but falls short of the high speed service that can help schools, businesses, and rural healthcare facilities.
但是满足不了服务学校、商家以及乡村地区医疗设备的网速需求
On an international scale, it would signal that
在国际层面上,这一做法也将释放一种讯号,
The FCC is fine with connectivity slower than mobile speeds in Kenya or Greece,
那就是,即使网速比肯尼亚或是希腊的网速还慢,美国通信委员会也感到欣然自足。
both of which rank higher than The United States.
肯尼亚和希腊两国的网速都比美国的快。
Dropping the benchmark lowers the broadband goal,
下调网速基准就是下调宽带接入目标
but using electrification as a funding model could help reach it where it is.
但采用电气化的融资模式能够帮助我们把宽带送到它应该到达的地方。
Expansion is expensive.
提高宽带覆盖率成本高是高,
But history and research show that providing equal internet for all Americans is worth it.
但历史和研究两者均表明,为所有美国人提供均等的网络服务不吃亏。

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