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【草稿】经济学人:计算机——宇宙的主人(1)

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The job of capital marketsis to process information so that savings flow to the best projects and firms.That makes high finance sound simple; in reality it is dynamic andintoxicating. It reflects a changing world. Today’s markets, for instance, are grapplingwith a trade war and low interest rates. But it also reflects changes withinfinance, which constantly reinvents itself in a perpetual struggle to gain acompetitive edge. As our Briefing reports, the latest revolution is in fullswing. Machines are taking control of investing—not just the humdrum buying andselling of securities, but also the commanding heights of monitoring theeconomy and allocating capital.

资本市场的工作是处理信息,使储蓄流向最好的项目和公司。这使得高级金融听起来很简单;实际上,它是动态的,令人陶醉的。它反映了一个不断变化的世界。例如,如今的市场正努力应对贸易战和低利率。但它也反映了金融内部的变化,在不断的竞争中不断重塑自己,以获得竞争优势。正如我们的简报所报道的,最新的革命正在全面展开。机器正在控制投资——不仅仅是单调的证券买卖,也是监管经济和资本配置的制高点。

Funds run by computersthat follow rules set by humans account for 35% of America’s stockmarket, 60%of institutional equity assets and 60% of trading activity. Newartificial-intelligence programs are also writing their own investing rules, inways their human masters only partly understand. Industries from pizza-deliveryto Hollywood are being changed by technology, but finance is unique because itcan exert voting power over firms, redistribute wealth and cause mayhem in theeconomy.

由遵循人类规则的计算机运行的基金占美国股市的35%,机构股票资产的60%,交易活动的60%。新的人工智能程序也在以人类主人只能部分理解的方式,编写自己的投资规则。从披萨外卖到好莱坞的各个行业都在被技术所改变,但金融业是独一无二的,因为它可以对企业施加投票权,重新分配财富,并在经济中造成混乱。

The climate issue4.jpg

The obvious fix will be unpalatable to many. The UN’s climate talks treat 193 countries as equals, providing a forum in which all are heard. But three-quarters of emissions come from just 12 economies. In some of those, including the United States, it is possible to imagine younger voters in liberal democracies demanding a political realignment on climate issues—and a new interest in getting others to join in. For a club composed of a dozen great and middling-but-mucky powers to thrash out a “minilateral” deal would leave billions excluded from questions that could shape their destiny; the participants would need new systems of trade preference and other threats and bribes to keep each other in line. But they might break the impasse, pushing enough of the world onto a steeper mitigation trajectory to benefit all—and be widely emulated.

显而易见的解决方案将让许多人感到不快。联合国气候谈判平等对待193个国家,提供了一个所有国家都能发声的论坛。但四分之三的排放量仅来自12个经济体。在其中一些国家,包括美国,可以想象自由民主国家的年轻选民要求在气候问题上进行政治重组,并希望其他人也加入进来。对于一个由十几个伟大的、中等但不太体面的大国组成的俱乐部来说,敲定一项“小范围”协议将使数十亿人被排除在可能决定他们命运的问题之外;参与者将需要新的贸易优惠制度、其他威胁和贿赂,以保持彼此一致。但他们可能会打破僵局,将世界上足够多的国家推向一个更陡峭的减排轨道,使所有国家受益——并被广泛效仿。
The damage that climate change will end up doing depends on the human response over the next few decades. Many activists on the left cannot imagine today’s liberal democracies responding to the challenge on an adequate scale. They call for new limits to the pursuit of individual prosperity and sweeping government control over investment—strictures some of them would welcome under any circumstances. Meanwhile, on the right, some look away from the incipient disaster in an I’m-alright-Jack way and so ignore their duties to the bulk of humanity.
气候变化最终造成的破坏将取决于未来几十年人类的反应。许多左翼活动人士无法想象,今天的自由民主国家会以适当的规模应对这一挑战。他们呼吁对追求个人繁荣进行新的限制,并要求政府对投资限制进行全面控制。与此同时,在右翼,一些人以一种“我还好吧”的方式把目光从刚刚开始的灾难上移开,因此忽视了他们对人类的责任。
If the spirit of enterprise that first tapped the power of fossil fuels in the Industrial Revolution is to survive, the states in which it has most prospered must prove those attitudes wrong. They must be willing to transform the machinery of the world economy without giving up on the values out of which that economy was born. Some claim that capitalism’s love of growth inevitably pits it against a stable climate. This newspaper believes them wrong. But climate change could nonetheless be the death knell for economic freedom, along with much else. If capitalism is to hold its place, it must up its game.
如果在工业革命中率先利用化石燃料的企业精神要生存下去,那么,在化石燃料最繁荣的国家,必须证明这些态度是错误的。他们必须愿意改革世界经济的机制,而不放弃产生这种经济的价值观念。一些人声称,资本主义对增长的热爱不可避免地使其与稳定的气候相矛盾。本刊认为他们是错的。然而,气候变化可能是经济自由的丧钟,还有许多其他因素。如果资本主义想要站稳脚跟,就必须坚持下去。

译文由可可原创,仅供学习交流使用,未经许可请勿转载。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
nonetheless [.nʌnðə'les]

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adv. 尽管如此(仍然)

 
survive [sə'vaiv]

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vt. 比 ... 活得长,幸免于难,艰难度过

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claim [kleim]

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n. 要求,要求权;主张,断言,声称;要求物

 
incipient [in'sipiənt]

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adj. 起初的,初期的

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benefit ['benifit]

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n. 利益,津贴,保险金,义卖,义演
vt.

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impasse ['impæs]

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n. 僵局,死路

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funds

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n. 基金;资金,现金(fund的复数) v. 提供资金

 
exert [ig'zə:t]

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vt. 运用,施加(压力,影响等)

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institutional [.insti'tju:ʃənəl]

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adj. 制度上的,惯例的,机构的

 
ignore [ig'nɔ:]

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vt. 不顾,不理,忽视

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关键字: 气候 经济学人

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