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经济学人:如何拯救正在消失的珊瑚礁(2)

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Measures to mitigate climate change are needed regardless of coral, but even if the world’s great powers were to put their shoulder to the problem, global warming would not be brought to a swift halt. Coral systems must adapt if they are to survive, and governments in countries with reefs can help them do so.

不管珊瑚如何,减缓气候变化的措施都是需要的,但即使世界大国齐心协力解决这个问题,全球变暖也不会很快停止。珊瑚系统如果要生存就必须适应,珊瑚礁国家的政府可以帮助它们这样做。
Corals need protection from local sources of harm. Their ecosystems suffer from coastal run-off, whether sewage or waste from farms, as well as the sediment dumped from beach-front building sites. Plastic and other debris block sunlight and spread hostile bacteria. Chunks of reef are blown up by blast fishing; algae grow too much whenever fishing is too intensive. Governments need to impose tighter rules on these industries, such as tougher local building codes, and to put more effort into enforcing rules against overfishing.
珊瑚需要保护,以免受到来自当地的危害。它们的生态系统受到沿海径流的影响,无论是来自农场的污水或废物,还是来自海滨建筑工地的沉积物。塑料和其他杂物阻挡阳光,传播有害细菌。爆炸式捕鱼会炸掉大块珊瑚礁;每当捕捞过度时,海藻就会大量繁殖。政府需要对这些行业实施更严格的规定,比如更严格的地方建筑法规,并投入更多的精力来执行禁止过度捕捞的规定。

Coral reefs2.jpg

Setting up marine protected areas could help reefs. Locals who fear for their livelihoods could be given work as rangers with the job of looking after the reserves. Levies on visitors to marine parks, similar to those imposed in parts of the Caribbean, could help pay for such schemes. So too could a special tax on coastal property developers.

建立海洋保护区可以帮助珊瑚礁。担心生计的当地人可能会被分配到护林员的工作,照顾这些保护区。向海岸公园的游客征税,类似于加勒比海部分地区的征税,可以帮助支付这些计划的费用。对沿海房地产开发商征收特别税也是如此。
Many reefs that have been damaged could benefit from restoration. Coral’s biodiversity offers hope, because the same coral will grow differently under different conditions. Corals of the western Pacific near Indonesia, for example, can withstand higher temperatures than the same species in the eastern Pacific near Hawaii. Identifying the hardiest types and encouraging them to grow in new spots is a way forward, though an expensive one. A massive project of this sort is under way in Saudi Arabia as part of a tourism drive. Scientists working alongside the Red Sea Development Company want to discover why the area’s species seem to thrive in its particularly warm waters.
许多被破坏的珊瑚礁可以从恢复中受益。珊瑚的生物多样性给我们带来了希望,因为同样的珊瑚在不同的条件下会以不同的方式生长。例如,印度尼西亚附近西太平洋的珊瑚比夏威夷附近东太平洋的同类能承受更高的温度。确定最顽强的品种并鼓励它们在新的地方生长是一种前进的方式,尽管代价昂贵。作为旅游业发展的一部分,沙特阿拉伯正在进行类似的大型项目。与红海开发公司一起工作的科学家们希望发现为什么该地区的物种似乎在其特别温暖的水域中茁壮成长。
More drastic intervention to head off the larger threats corals face should also attract more research. Shading reefs using a polymer film as a sunscreen to cool them is under discussion for parts of the Great Barrier Reef. Other schemes to help corals involve genetic engineering, selective breeding and brightening the clouds in the sky above an area of the reef by spraying specks of salt into the lowest ones, so that they deflect more of the sun’s energy. These measures may sound extreme, but people need to get used to thinking big. Dealing with the problems caused by climate change will call for some radical ideas.
为阻止珊瑚面临的更大威胁而采取的更激烈的干预措施也应该会吸引更多的研究。在大堡礁的部分地区,人们正在讨论用一种聚合物薄膜作为防晒霜来给珊瑚礁遮阴。其他帮助珊瑚的计划包括基因工程、选择性繁殖和在珊瑚礁上空的云层上撒盐,以使云层变亮,从而转移更多的太阳能。这些措施听起来可能有些极端,但人们需要习惯于从长远考虑。应对气候变化带来的问题需要一些激进的想法。

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property ['prɔpəti]

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n. 财产,所有物,性质,地产,道具

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involve [in'vɔlv]

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vt. 包含,使陷入,使忙于,使卷入,牵涉

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swift [swift]

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adj. 快的,迅速的
n. 雨燕,线轴

 
mitigate ['miti.geit]

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vt. 镇静,缓和,减轻

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shading ['ʃeidiŋ]

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n. 明暗法;描影法;底纹;遮蔽;留下阴影

 
sediment ['sedimənt]

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n. 沉淀物

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impose [im'pəuz]

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v. 加上,课征,强迫,征收(税款)

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protection [prə'tekʃən]

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n. 保护,防卫

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intervention [.intə'venʃən]

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n. 插入,介入,调停

 
spread [spred]

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v. 伸展,展开,传播,散布,铺开,涂撒
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关键字: 珊瑚礁 经济学人

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