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第72期:达达主义和超现实主义(1)

来源:可可英语 编辑:Vicki   VIP免费外教试听课 |  可可官方微信:ikekenet

Hey there! I'm mike rugnetta. This is Crash Course Theater.

嘿 大家好 我是迈克·鲁格内塔 这里是“戏剧速成课堂”
And today's episode should be in the form of a manifesto because
今天这一集应该以宣言的形式来讲 因为
we've reached the 20th century and pretty much every new movement comes with multiple mission statements at this point.
我们已经进入了20世纪 几乎每一个新的运动都伴随许多的使命宣言
But to those mission statements include animated sequences and one charming cranium co-host. They did not.
这些使命宣言包括动画序列和一个迷人的骷髅头联合主持人 并没有
Today we'll be exploring Symbolism, Surrealism, and Dadaism, the movement that argued how in a random and senseless universe,
今天我们将探索象征主义、超现实主义以及达达主义 达达主义是一场争论如何在一个混乱而毫无意义的宇宙中生存的运动
The only approach is to be more random. Asteroid, several ducks, and a giant teapot, cufflinks roll title.
唯一的办法就是更乱 由小行星、几只鸭子、以及一个巨大的茶壶、袖扣 冠名播出
Writers like Ibson, Strindberg, and Chekhov turned to symbolism later in life,
易卜生、斯特林堡和契诃夫等作家在晚年转向象征主义
although the movements main proponent was the almost all symbolist, almost all the time Belgian playwright Maurice Maeterlinck.
尽管该运动的主要支持者几乎都是象征主义者 而且比利时剧作家莫里斯·梅特林克几乎贯穿了整场运动
Symbolism argues that poetry is superior to reality and that out of the chaos
象征主义认为诗歌优于现实 从人类生活的混乱
and evanescence of human life a quieter and more lasting truth can be discerned.
和短暂中可以发现更安定、更持久的真理
The movement got going in the 1860s and 1870s with folks like the famous poets Stéphane Mallarmé and Charles Baudelaire.
这场运动始于十九世纪六七十年代 人物有著名诗人斯特凡·马拉梅和查尔斯·波德莱尔
It was formally announced in the 1886 Manifesto published in the French paper La Figaro.
1886年 法国《费加罗报》发表了一份宣言正式宣布了这一运动的开始
Here are some of symbolism's basic tenets, truth in excess and extravagance, truth in apparent chaos and insanity,
下面是象征主义的一些基本原则:过度奢靡的真理、混乱疯狂的真理、
truth in subjective experience, platitudes and natural banality are dangerous, we need to be constantly ever more audacious.
主观经验的真理、陈词滥调是危险的、我们要始终无畏向前
The movement was anti-realism and resisted concentrating on the nitty-gritty of daily life.
这场运动是反现实主义的 反对将注意力集中在日常生活中的细节上
Instead, symbolists focused on poetic ideals and mysticism, investigating the profound mystery of human existence.
相反 象征主义者专注于诗意的理想和神秘主义 研究人类存在的深奥奥秘
The first symbolist theater was Theatre D'art, founded by the eighteen year-old Paul Fost in 1890.
第一个象征主义剧院是艺术剧院 由18岁的保罗·福斯特于1890年创建
This move got him expelled from high school.
这一举动致使他被高中学校开除
A few years later that theater became the Theatre De L'oeuvre, led by the director Aurelion Lasie Poe.
几年后 这家剧院变成了由导演欧瑞里昂·雷西·坡掌管的“巴黎作品剧院”
he produced plays by Maeterlinck, Ibsen, and Strindberg.
演出梅特林克、易卜生和斯特林堡的戏剧作品
Well, realism had accustomed to theater goers to a more lifelike style of acting.
现实主义已经习惯了戏迷们对逼真的表演风格的衷爱
Theatre De L'oeuvre was big on non representational sets
而巴黎作品剧院的布景非常地抽象

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and acting that looked like sleepwalking and lines that weren't spoken as so much as chanted.

表演看着就像在梦游、台词不是说出来的 而是唱出来的
Maeterlinck wrote that he went to the theater "hoping that the beauty, the grandeur,
梅特林克写道 他去剧院“希望我卑微的日常生活中的美、宏伟
and the earnestness of my humble day-by-day existence would, for one instant, be revealed to me,
和诚挚能够一瞬间展现给我
that I would be shown that I know not what presence, power, or God that is ever with me."
让我知道我不了解的永远与我同在的存在、力量和上帝。”
Honestly, seems like a big ass. But, hey, small ambitions, small successes. And, alright.
说实话 听着像放屁一样 但是 嘿 小的野心 小的成就 对吧
Dadaism had less lofty goals. But man, it did have a giant impact on the arts and the world at large.
达达主义没有那么崇高的目标 但是 它确实对艺术和整个世界产生了巨大的影响
The movement emerged in the cabarets of Zurich, Switzerland at the tail end of world war one.
达达主义运动是在第一次世界大战末期在瑞士苏黎世的夜总会兴起的
The main idea was that if Lodge can lead to a global war than art should abandon logic and a reason in favor of nonsense intuition and anarchy.
其主要的观点是:如果洛奇能够导致一场全球性的战争 那么艺术就应该抛弃逻辑 抛弃理由 而去支持无意义的直觉和无政府状态
You want to get nuts? Let's get nuts.
你想疯吗?那我们一起疯!
Tristan Tzara, a former symbolist and the movements main spokesperson, put it like this:
特里斯唐·查拉是前象征主义者和该运动的主要发言人 他是这样说的:
The beginnings of Dada were not the beginnings of art, but of disgust.
达达主义的起源并不是艺术的起源 而是厌恶的起源
Hugo Ball, Emmy Hemings, and Richard Huelsenbeck were early adherence,
雨果·巴尔、艾米·翰宁斯和理查德·胡森贝克是达达主义早期的忠实拥护者
but in 1916 Tzara created maybe the first Dada performance at the Cabaret Voltaire.
而1916年查拉在伏尔泰酒店创造了大概是达达主义的首演
This was a cavalcade of clowns and stilt walkers that featured Tzara himself,
就是一连串以查拉本人为特色的小丑和高跷步行者
distributing balled up pieces of paper to on lookers while he sang a song.
他一边唱着歌 一边把揉成一团的纸分发给看热闹的人
Oh, and no one agrees on what the word Dada means.
哦 还有 他们对“达达”这个词的意思并没有一致的观点
Some Dada ist's claimed it was chosen from the dictionary at random.
一些达达主义者声称该词是从字典里随机选的
Dada was big on randomness. Or what you can call the "aleatory", the thing left up to chance.
达达喜欢随机 或者可以称之为“偶然” 由运气决定的东西
Tzara's favorite mode of composition was to cut a bunch of words out of a newspaper,
查拉最喜欢的写作方式是从报纸上剪下一堆单词
put them in a hat, and then pick them out at random to make a poem.
把它们放在一顶帽子里 然后随机挑出单词来作诗
Renaissance. Powerful. Artist. Probably.
复兴 强大 艺术家 可能
as he wrote in to make a Dada poem: "the poem will resemble you.
就像他在《写一首达达主义诗》中写道:“你是一个极具独创性的作家
and there you are—an infinitely original author of charming Sensibility, even though unappreciated by the vulgar herd."
有着迷人的情感 尽管不为俗人所赏识”
Dada made no distinctions between high and low art, mastery and amateurism, or sense and nonsense,
达达主义认为高雅艺术与低俗艺术、精通艺术与业余艺术、意义与无意义之间没有区别
At a typical Dada performance, a bunch of things would be happening all at once,
在典型的达达主义表演中 很多事情会同时发生
a poem in a made-up language, a song, a dance, some very weird costumes.
一首胡乱编写的诗、一首歌、一支舞、一些非常奇怪的服装
And it was up to you to make sense of it. Or you could just jeer and leave.
这完全取决于你个人对它的理解 或者说你可以嘲弄一番然后离席
Upsetting the audience, especially the bourgeois audience, was part of the fun. Maybe even most of the fun.
惹恼观众(尤其是中产阶级观众)是娱乐所在 或许是最大的娱乐所在
In the 1920s, the writer André Breton, broke with dadaism.
20世纪20年代 作家安德烈·布勒东与达达主义发生了决裂
Because he thought it was silly? And Breton wasn't wrong per se?
因为他觉得达达主义很傻?布勒东 他错了吗?
Breton started surrealism, borrowing the term from the playwright Guillaume Apollinaire,
布勒东开启了超现实主义 他借用了剧作家纪尧姆·阿波利奈尔的术语
who called his 1903 drama the breasts of therese es una drum suv least or "A drama greater than realism".
纪尧姆称他1903年的戏剧是“一部比现实主义更伟大的戏剧”
So that settles that. Very surreal.
于是名字就定下来了 非常地超现实主义
Surrealism looked back toward symbolism for a form that would unlock some greater truth of existence.
超现实主义回顾象征主义 寻求一种能够揭示某种更伟大的真理的存在的形式
A movement was influenced by the nascent theories of Freud and an emphasis on the unconscious, as well as the world of dreams.
它是一种受到弗洛伊德的新理论影响的运动 强调潜意识和梦的世界
Surrealist theater sought a way to synthesize as Burton wrote: "life and death, the real and the imagined,
超现实主义戏剧寻求一种综合的方式 正如伯顿所写:生与死、现实和想象、
past and future, the communicable and the incommunicable, high and low,"
过去和未来、可传播与不可传播、高与低
So that these things "ceased to be perceived as contradictions."
所有这些“都不再被视为矛盾”

重点单词   查看全部解释    
subjective [səb'dʒektiv]

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adj. 主观的
n. 主格,主观事物

 
vulgar ['vʌlgə]

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adj. 通俗的,粗俗的

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chaos ['keiɔs]

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n. 混乱,无秩序,混沌

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surrealism [sə'ri:əlizəm, -'riəl-]

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n. 超现实主义

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movement ['mu:vmənt]

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n. 活动,运动,移动,[音]乐章

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randomness

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n. 随意;无安排;不可测性

 
acting ['æktiŋ]

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n. 演戏,行为,假装 adj. 代理的,临时的,供演出

 
drum [drʌm]

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n. 鼓,鼓声,鼓状物
vi. 击鼓,连续敲击

 
logic ['lɔdʒik]

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n. 逻辑,逻辑学,条理性,推理

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original [ə'ridʒənl]

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adj. 最初的,原始的,有独创性的,原版的

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