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Greetings. I'm mike rugnetta. This is Crash Course Theater.

大家好 我是迈克·鲁格内塔 这里是“戏剧速成课堂”
And today we'll explore another controversial 20th century movement.
This one revolted against the confining form of realism, in favor of a form that more adequately portrayed
该运动反对现实主义的局限形式而去支持另外一种形式 这种形式更充分地描绘了
the experience of the human soul in the midst of an increasingly violent and mechanistic world.
Ladies, gentlemen, sentient skulls, I give you expressionism.
女士们 先生们 有感情的头骨们 今天我们来讲“表现主义”
We'll look at its origin, its literature, its stagecraft, and its impact on American Modernism.
We get like a little bit more light in here.
Expressionism is a less often talked about 20th century ism, because it doesn't really have a principal advocate or even a manifesto.
表现主义是20世纪很少被提及一个主义 因为它没有真正的主要倡导者 甚至没有宣言
Yorick, you wanna work something up?
约里克 你想做点什么吗?
The term was first used in 1901 to describe new trends in visual art.
Basically, what makes Monet's water lilies different from Van Gogh's sunflowers?
总的来说就是 是什么让莫奈的睡莲不同于梵高的向日葵?
Well, Monet's water lilies, very impressionistic, are an attempt to capture the feel of a moment through the depiction of an object.
莫奈的睡莲 非常印象派 试图通过描绘一个物体来捕捉瞬间的感觉
Impressionists were very focused on light into place, not poor trails of moments, but impressions of them, you might say.
可以这么说 印象派画家非常注重光线到位 不是糟糕的时刻 而是对它们的印象
Van Gogh's sunflowers are one important precursor to expressionism, where artists attempted to
梵高的《向日葵》是表现主义的重要先驱之一 在表现主义中 艺术家们试图
capture their own emotional experience and internal state rather than objects or situations.
捕捉自己的情感体验和内心状态 而不是捕捉某个物体或者某个情景
Van Gogh wasn't an expressionist, but he was a huge influence on them.
梵高并不是表现主义者 但他对表现主义者有很大的影响
Following his work, the expression of emotional experience in the visual arts became increasingly abstract.
跟随着他的创作 视觉艺术中情感体验的表达变得越来越抽象
Because no amount of realism can ever capture the truth of the modern world and it's horrifying lived experience.
因为再多的现实主义都无法捕捉现代世界的真相 这是一种可怕的生活体验
There wasn't a lot of impressionistic theater, mostly painting and music,
当时的印象主义戏剧并不多 主要表现在绘画和音乐方面
but when expressionism started as a reaction to impressionism, it impacted theater in a big way.
不过表现主义起初是对印象主义的一种反应 它对戏剧产生了很大的影响
Expressionists were interested in bringing about a new better braver world, but most of their plays were dark.
表现主义艺术家们的兴趣点是创造一个新的、更好、更勇敢的世界 不过他们的大多数戏剧作品都比较暗黑
And the new world never arrives, because everyone is busy being murdered.
新世界永远不会到来 因为大家都忙于被谋杀
As movements go, expressionism was more serious than dada and less dreamy than surrealism.
随着运动的发展 表现主义变得比达达主义更加严肃 同时又没有超现实主义那么梦幻
It was actually not that different from symbolism. But with darker lighting, more screaming, and way more emotion.
它其实跟象征主义区别不大 只不过光线更暗、更刺激、更富情感
If symbolism was about trying to determine a universal truth, expressionism concerned itself with one artists, weird individual perspective.
如果说象征主义试图确定一个普遍的真理 那么表现主义则关注一个艺术家 以一种怪异的个人视角
Expressionism is radical focus on the self, made it a bit like romanticism.
表现主义比较激进 关注自我 这使得它和浪漫主义有点像
But expressionism also had an urban focus, no mountaintops, no crags,
但是表现主义也是以城市为中心 没有山顶 没有峭壁
and focus wasn't really on character, but on ideas and feelings. Most of the characters were just archetypes.
同时不关注性格 而是关注想法和感觉 其中大多角色都有原型


The term expressionism shows up in theater just before World War One.

But it definitely has the theatrical precursors, like Georg Buchner's "Woyzeck".
但它肯定有作为前驱的戏剧 比如奥尔格·毕希纳的《沃依采克》
The savage fragmentary play based on an actual murder.
This one was left incomplete at the time of Buchner's early death from typhus in 1837.
在毕希纳于1837年因斑疹伤寒而早逝时 这部作品依然尚未完成
And what is it with these playwrights an early death?
The play is based on Johann Christian Woyzeck, a schizophrenic soldier who murdered his common-law wife.
该剧以约翰·克里斯蒂安·沃依采克为原型 他是一名患有精神分裂症的士兵 他杀死了自己的合法妻子
The play reflects woyzeck's chaotic mind.
No one knows what order the scenes can go in, which makes them even more hallucinatory and fun to rearrange.
没有人知道这些场景的顺序是怎样的 这使得该剧更容易引起幻觉 也使得重新给这些场景排序变得更有意思
Try it at your next nerdy theater party, or don't.
下次你们在书呆子剧院派对上试试 或者 不试
Another proto expressionist play is Frank Wedekind's 1891 "Spring Awakening", which many of you will know from the broadway musical version.
另一部原型表现主义戏剧是弗兰克·魏德金于1891年创作的《春之觉醒》 你们很多人可能看过它的百老汇音乐剧版
It's a story of adolescent pain and desire and how the old generation harms the younger one.
Frank Wedekind's version is much more violent and less naturalistic,
弗兰克·魏德金的原版戏剧则更加暴力 自然主义成分更少
full of mysterious and creepy symbols and figures, like the masked man who appears in the final graveyard scene.
充满了神秘以及令人毛骨悚然的符号和人物 比如在最后的墓地场景中出现的蒙面人
And there's also a definite whiff of expressionism in some of August Strindberg's light plays, like "To Damascus".
奥古斯特·斯特林堡的一些轻剧 比如《大马士革之行》 也有明显的表现主义气息
In a 1907 essay "Truth In Error", strindberg offers an early definition of expressionism:
在1907年的一篇文章《错误中的真理》中 斯特林堡给出了表现主义最初的定义:
The world is a reflection of your interior state and of the interior states of others.
The movement really got going in Germany after World War One.
Some people argue that Oskar Kokoschka's "Murderer, The Hope of Women", first performed in 1909 is the first full-on expressionist play,
while other people argue that it's Hasenclever's "Der Sohn" Or "The Son" Performed in 1916.
Hasenclever describes "Der Sohn" as the expression of a soul swollen with tragedy.
I'm gonna describe it as an intergenerational conflict.
The greatest German playwright that expressionism produced is probably Georg Kaiser.
His gas trilogy "The Coral" "Gas" And "Gas Ⅱ" explicitly connects the expressionist worldview
to the devastations of the first world war, a war that Kaiser didn't actually serve. He had a nervous condition.
与第一次世界大战的破坏联系起来 而凯撒实际上并没有参与这场战争 他有精神方面的疾病
The other German expressionist to know is Ernst Toller,
a playwright who is also president of the Bavarian Soviet republic for a red hot second.
他是巴伐利亚苏维埃共和国的第二任总统 也是一名剧作家
Toller wrote: "humanity seeks in art the solution of various miseries and conflicts…
art is betrayed when the terrible story of humanity is misinterpreted in insignificant niceties."
当关于人性的可怕故事被无关紧要的细节曲解时 艺术就被出卖了。”
Toller's 1927 play "hoppla, We're Alive!" is about a man who spends eight years in an insane asylum.
When he leaves, he discovers a politically transformed world that's just as chaotic as a madhouse.
当他离开时 他看到的是一个就像疯人院一样混乱的政治性转变的世界
Or when Pisgah, a guy we will meet when we discuss epic theater directed the Berlin premiere in 1927.
还有皮斯加 我们会在讨论1927年史诗剧场执导的柏林首映式上见到他
He used sophisticated projection design that included newsreels from the Russian Revolution to give the play a more explicitly political feel.
他使用了复杂的投影设计 包括俄罗斯革命的新闻影片 使这部剧的政治感觉更加明确

重点单词   查看全部解释    
epic ['epik]


n. 史诗,叙事诗 adj. 史诗的,叙事诗的,宏大的,

symbolism ['simbəlizəm]


n. 象征主义,象征,符号化

internal [in'tə:nəl]


adj. 国内的,内在的,身体内部的

emotional [i'məuʃənl]


adj. 感情的,情绪的

solution [sə'lu:ʃən]


n. 解答,解决办法,溶解,溶液

describe [dis'kraib]


vt. 描述,画(尤指几何图形),说成

capture ['kæptʃə]


vt. 捕获,俘获,夺取,占领,迷住,(用照片等)留存<

mysterious [mis'tiəriəs]


adj. 神秘的,不可思议的

fragmentary ['frægməntəri]


adj. 碎片的,碎块的,碎屑状的,零碎的,不完全的

explore [iks'plɔ:]


v. 探险,探测,探究