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A new theater also required a new style of acting.

Remember all that cool stuff about mumbling and turning your back on the audience? Expressionism not into it.
还记得那些很酷的表演方式吗 喃喃自语、背对着观众什么的 表现主义对此不感兴趣
Actors were encouraged to create mechanical shapes with their bodies
and to use exaggerated gestures and declamatory modes of speaking or screaming. Screaming I say.
使用夸张的手势、朗诵的说话方式或者尖叫 我尖叫着说话
As the czech playwright paul kornfeld wrote: Let him dare to stretch his arms out wide
and with a sense of soaring speak as he has never spoken in life…
In short, let him be not ashamed of the fact that he is acting. Let him not deny the theater to try to feign reality.
总之 让他不要为自己的行为感到羞耻 让他不要否认戏剧在试图捏造现实
Huh, reality. Have you seen reality? Why bother?
呃呵 现实 你见过现实长啥样吗?何苦呢?
Expressionism also helped continue a revolution in set design that favored abstraction and symbolism over realism.
This revolution, like a lot of revolutions, started earlier with the game-changing designs of Adolf Opia and Edward Gordon Craig.
这场革命 就像许多革命一样 早在阿道夫·阿皮耶和爱德华·戈登·克雷格改变游戏规则设计之时就开始了
Opia is maybe best known as a lighting designer.
He thought that lights, scenery, costumes, and the actors bodies should be merged into a seamless whole, the mise en scene.
他认为灯光、布景、服装和演员的身体应该融合成一个天衣无缝的整体 即所谓的“舞台调度”
Some of his most influential designs were for Vogner's Operas in the 1880s and 1890s.
His sets were simple, sometimes sinister assemblages of wide shallow steps and narrow columns.
他的布景很简单 有时是由又宽又浅的台阶和狭窄的柱子组成的灾难性组合
The sets were stark and uncluttered, the better to emphasize the bodies of the actors and shifts in lighting.
布景朴素而整洁 这样更能突出演员的身体和灯光的变化
Gordon Craig wasn't a big fan of actors. He preferred designs in which the actors were strictly subordinate.
戈登·克雷格对演员并不着迷 他更青睐于演员能够严格贴合设计
He pioneered the use of mobile screens as a design element, using them in famous moscow art theatre productions of hamlet.
他率先使用手机屏幕作为设计元素 在著名的莫斯科艺术剧院演出的《哈姆雷特》中使用
His sets often had an emotive quality. And he actually got mad when he thought that the actors were tainting them with their own emotions.
他的布景常常带有感情色彩 当他想到演员用自己的情感玷污布景的时候 他真的会暴走
Also, he hung the lights above the stage for the first time.
此外 他第一次把灯挂在了舞台上方
Robert Edmund jones was another leading expressionist designer.
He adopted Gordon Craig's idea of a continuous mise en scene, creating bold and simple stage spaces for playwrights,
他吸收了戈登·克雷格不断进行舞台调度的想法 为剧作家创造了大胆而简单的舞台空间
especially for Eugene O'neill and his theatre company "The Provincetown Players".
Jones thought that since movies have a lock on realism, theater should strive for something stranger, more abstract, and more beautiful.
琼斯认为 既然电影锁定了现实主义 那么剧院就应该努力追求更奇特、更抽象、更美丽的东西
The United States was late to a lot of cultural things. And the theatrical avant-garde was one of them.
美国在很多文化方面起步较晚 而戏剧先锋派就是其中之一
But America went for expressionism in a big way.


Something about the movements concerned with industrialization really spoke to American writers.

Confronted with so many new technologies, they saw increasing mechanization as soul-killing, a kind of death in life.
面对如此之多的新技术 他们认为日益增长的机械化扼杀了灵魂 是生命中的一种死亡
And they created plays about people who rage against the machine literally, but also unsuccessfully.
他们创作了一些人们愤怒反抗机器的戏剧 不过也以失败告终
One of the first major expressionist works in the U.S. was Eugene O'neill's 1922 play "The Hairy Ape", a fragmented story of dehumanization.
美国最早的表现主义作品之一是尤金·奥尼尔1922年的戏剧《毛猿》 一个关于非人化的片段式的故事
We're saving o'neil for our episode on American moderns though, so you're gonna have to wait for that one.
不过 我们还是把奥尼尔留到“美国现代”的那一集再讲 所以 且等着吧
Instead, we'll take a closer look at American expressionism's high-water mark, Sophie Treadwell's 1928 play "Machinal",
取而代之 我们会进一步来看美国表现主义的巅峰之作 即马克·索菲·特兰德威尔1928年的戏剧《机械》
based on an actual murder case that featured ruth snyder, the first woman to die in the electric chair, because technology.
这部剧根据真实的谋杀案改编 主人公露丝·斯奈德是第一个死在电椅上的女人 因为科技
Take it away thought bubble.
The play is divided into nine fragmentary scenes.
First, a young woman shows up late to her secretarial job at the george h. Jones company, because she had a panic attack on the subway.
首先 一个年轻女人在乔治·H·琼斯公司做秘书工作 她迟到了 因为她在地铁上恐慌症发作了
The woman's mother tries to get her to eat potatoes, while the girl reveals that George H Jones himself has proposed marriage.
女人的母亲试图让女人吃土豆 但是女人透露乔治·H·琼斯已经向她求婚
Her mother tells her to marry him, even though the woman likes him about as much as she likes potatoes.
女人的母亲让她嫁给他 虽然女人对他的喜欢就跟对土豆的喜欢一样多
The young woman is then on her honeymoon, actively repulsed by her husband's sexual advances.
之后 这位年轻的女人在度蜜月 她主动拒绝了丈夫的性挑逗
The woman is in the maternity ward. She hasn't bonded with her baby. And she's deep in what we'd now call "Postpartum depression".
女人在产房 她没有和自己的孩子建立感情 她深陷我们当今所说的“产后抑郁症”
She refuses to eat, rejecting the advice of the paternalistic doctors. A visit from her husband only makes things worse.
她拒绝吃东西 拒绝家长式作风的医生的建议 而丈夫的探访只会让事情更糟糕
She goes out dancing with a girlfriend and meets a man Roe, who describes how he escaped from bandits in mexico.
她和一个女性朋友出去跳舞 遇到了一个名叫罗伊的人 他讲述了自己是如何从墨西哥的土匪手中逃脱的
The woman is like, oh wow. Freedom.
女人说:哦 哇哦 自由
She's also like, hey! Someone who doesn't repulse me.
She slept with Roe, but it's clear that she wants more from the affair than he does.
她和罗伊睡了 但很明显 她想从婚外情中得到的比罗伊要多
She's home with her husband. Her disgust and sense of confinement have only grown.
她和丈夫在家里 她的厌恶感和被囚禁的感觉只增不减
The woman is on trial for her husband's murder.
After Roe sends a damning letter supporting the prosecution, the woman confesses to the killing.
在罗伊发了一封支持起诉的谴责信之后 女人承认了自己的谋杀
The judge asks, why?
"To be free", she says.
“为了自由” 她说
She's brought to the electric chair while a priest harangues her with passages from the bible.
女人被带到电椅上 同时一名牧师用《圣经》中的段落对她长篇大论
Thanks thought-bubble.
Treadwell wrote that she wanted to reach into spectators still-secret places
and show them their own entrapment in an increasingly industrialized world.
She suggested an elaborate lighting design and soundscape, including typing, telephones, the subway,
她建议采用精心设计的灯光和音景 包括打字、打电话和乘坐地铁
to enhance the oppressive qualities of modern mechanized life that the woman tries unsuccessfully to break away from.
以此来增强现代机械化生活的压抑性 而这名女性试图摆脱这种压抑性 但没有成功
Expressionism is deeply critical of mechanism and its effects on the human soul.
But next time we're gonna meet some movements that are into it.
We're gonna explore Futurism, a fun Italian movement that was also full of fascists and uncomfortably pro-war.
下集我们将探索“未来主义” 一种有趣的意大利运动 同时也充满了法西斯主义者和令人不安的“亲战”元素
And we're also gonna look at Constructivism, a Russian movement that wanted to transform the actor into a beautiful machine.
我们还会看一看“建构主义” 俄罗斯的一种想要把演员变成漂亮的机器的运动
Until next time, wait, did... even have curtains. Okay. Yes, sometimes. All right. So curtain, but a weird one.
下集 等下 ……有幕帘吗 好吧 有的 有时候有 就这样 所以 闭幕 一次怪异的闭幕!

重点单词   查看全部解释    
critical ['kritikəl]


adj. 批评的,决定性的,危险的,挑剔的

prosecution [.prɔsi'kju:ʃən]


n. 实行,经营,起诉

mechanization [,mekənai'zeiʃən, -ni'z-]


n. 机械化;机动化

fragmentary ['frægməntəri]


adj. 碎片的,碎块的,碎屑状的,零碎的,不完全的

influential [.influ'enʃəl]


adj. 有权势的,有影响的
n. 有影响力的

movement ['mu:vmənt]


n. 活动,运动,移动,[音]乐章

emphasize ['emfəsaiz]


vt. 强调,着重

trial ['traiəl]


adj. 尝试性的; 审讯的
n. 尝试,努力

mechanized ['mekənaizd]


adj. 机械的,呆板的 =mechanised(英)

bubble ['bʌbl]


n. 气泡,泡影
v. 起泡,冒泡