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VOA常速新闻讲解附字幕:玉米乙醇与美国快餐店的争议

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When you drive up to Wendy's or other fast-food chains in the U.S., you are consuming corn in at least two ways.

当你驾车前往美国的温蒂汉堡或其它快餐连锁店,你就至少在两个方面消耗玉米。
The chicken or hamburger in your meal comes from an animal raised on corn.
你点餐的鸡肉或汉堡来自于用玉米喂养的动物。
Since the fuel in your car is 10 percent ethanol, which is made from corn, the two are competing for the same grain.
而且你车内燃料中占10%的乙醇也是来源于玉米,而就是上面所提的这两种正为了相同的谷物展开争夺。
“Ethanol diverts a significant share of the US corn crop each year," says University of Missouri economist Pat Westhoff.
“乙醇每年转化具有重大意义的美国玉米作物份额,”密苏里大学经济学家帕特•韦斯特幅说道。
"And, by doing so, it makes corn prices higher than they otherwise would be.”
“这样做提高了玉米价格,而其他消耗玉米的方式则不会有这样的效果。”
Higher corn prices mean higher meat prices.
而更高的玉米价格意味着更高的肉类价格。
Ethanol has consumed a growing share of the corn market since a 2005 law required it be added to U.S. gasoline.
自2005年一项法案要求玉米被添加进美国汽油起乙醇已经消耗了越来越大的玉米市场份额。
Now, the chain restaurant industry wants the law repealed.
现在,连锁餐饮业希望这项法律被废除。
At a recent news conference, franchise owner Ed Anderson said that the mandate costs each of his four Wendy's restaurants up to $30,000 per year.
在最近的一次新闻发布会上,快餐店老板埃德•安德森称他的4家温蒂汉堡餐厅每一家成本高达每年30,000美元。
“Congress passed the ethanol mandate, and now restaurants are being hit at a time our economy can't afford it,” he said.
“国会通过了乙醇政策,现在快餐店在我们的经济负担不起的时期受到了冲击。”他说道。
But not everyone agrees the law is driving up food prices.
但并不是每个人都同意该法案抬高了食品价格。
They note that even in this year's record-breaking drought, when corn prices hit new highs, the federal government declined to waive the law.
他们注意到,即使是今年创纪录的干旱,玉米价格达到新高时,联邦政府也拒绝废弃法律。
Studies by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) found doing so would only change the price of corn by a few cents.
而来自美国国家环境保护局(EPA)的研究发现这样做只会改变玉米的价格几美分。
“It moves three or four cents on a sneeze on the floor of the Chicago Board of Trade," says Renewable Fuels Association chief Bob Dinneen.
“3至4美分的波动对芝加哥期货交易所来说无关痛痒,”可再生燃料协会负责人鲍勃•德纳说道。
"So waiving this program wasn't going to provide any relief.
“废弃这一法案不会带来任何缓解。
Ethanol was not driving the price increase. There was no reason to waive the program.”
乙醇并没有带动价格上涨。没有理由废弃这一法案。”
Dinneen says ethanol is reducing dependence on foreign oil and holding down the price of gasoline.
德纳表示乙醇正在减少对外国石油的依赖并且对汽油的价格起到了抑制作用。
Ethanol is typically cheaper than petroleum. Fuel makers now add it to gasoline regardless of the law.
乙醇价格明显低于石油。而且现在燃料制造商们不顾法律将它添加到汽油当中。
So waiving the mandate might not not matter much in the short term.
所以废弃法案在短期内可能造成多大影响。
“We don't think there would be a large impact on the prices of ethanol and the prices of corn and the amount of corn that's being used for ethanol production in the very short term," says Pat Westhoff.
“我们不认为在短期内用于乙醇生产的乙醇,玉米价格及玉米的数量会有很大影响。” 帕特•韦斯特幅说道。
"If those policies were to change forever and ever, then there might be larger changes in front of us.”
“如果要永久改变这些政策, 那么在我们面前必须有更大的变化。”
Current policy calls for increased use of ethanol.
当前的政策要求增加乙醇使用。
Westhoff says that will require even more corn and put more pressure on food prices.
韦斯特幅表示需要更多的玉米并对粮食价格施加更多压力。
That is, unless other biofuels take the place of corn ethanol.
除非其他生物燃料能够代替玉米乙醇。
The Renewable Fuels Association's Bob Dinneen says fuels not made from food crops are coming-thanks to corn ethanol.
可再生燃料协会的鲍勃•德纳表示燃料不是来源于粮食作物—而是庆幸有了玉米乙醇。
“The grain ethanol industry has built the markets, it's established the technology, it's created the policies that are allowing those other industries to come into commercial scale," he says.
“谷物乙醇行业已经建立了市场,已经有了技术,已经有了政策,允许其他产业进入商业规模,”他说道。
"We are the foundation on which those new fuels will materialize.”
“我们是那些新燃料将会实现的基础。”
But until those fuels do materialize, the tension between burgers and biofuels will continue.
但直到这些燃料成为现实前,汉堡和生物燃料之间的紧张关系将继续维持。
注:听力文本来源于51VOA

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tension ['tenʃən]

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n. 紧张,拉力,张力,紧张状态,[电]电压

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scale [skeil]

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n. 鳞,刻度,衡量,数值范围
v. 依比例决

 
protection [prə'tekʃən]

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n. 保护,防卫

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conclusion [kən'klu:ʒən]

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n. 结论

 
current ['kʌrənt]

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n. (水、气、电)流,趋势
adj. 流通的

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established [is'tæbliʃt]

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adj. 已被确认的,确定的,建立的,制定的 动词est

 
mandate ['mændeit]

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n. 命令,指令,要求,托管地 vt. 把(某一地区)置

 
drought [draut]

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n. 干旱

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association [ə.səusi'eiʃən]

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n. 联合,结合,交往,协会,社团,联想

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relief [ri'li:f]

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n. 减轻,解除,救济(品), 安慰,浮雕,对比

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