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2012年考研英语(一)阅读真题(MP3+字幕)第4篇 Enemies of Progress

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If the trade unionist Jimmy Hoffa were alive today, he would probably represent civil servant.

如果工会会员Jimmy Hoffa今天还活着,他也许会是公务员的代表。
When Hoffa's Teamsters were in their prime in 1960, only one in ten American government workers belonged to a union; now 36% do.
1960年Hoffa的组织Teamsters处于全盛时期,美国政府工作人员中只有十分之一的人属于某一个公会;现在这个比率是36%。
In 2009 the number of unionists in America's public sector passed that of their fellow members in the private sector.
2009年任职于美国公共部门的工会会员人数超过了任职于私营部门的工会会员人数。
In Britain, more than half of public-sector workers but only about 15% of private-sector ones are unionized.
在英国,在公共部门的工作人员中半数以上参加了工会,而私营部门的工作人员只有大约15%的人参加了工会组织。
There are three reasons for the public-sector unions' thriving.
公共部门工会如此盛行的原因有三个。
First, they can shut things down without suffering much in the way of consequences.
第一,他们能够脱身,而不用承担太多后果。
Second, they are mostly bright and well-educated.
第二,他们中间大部分人聪明,受过良好教育。
A quarter of America's public-sector workers have a university degree.
美国公共部门的工作人员中四分之一的人有大学学位。
Third, they now dominate left-of-centre politics.
第三,他们现在在政治中的左翼力量中占主导地位。
Some of their ties go back a long way.
其中有些关系有很长的历史。
Britain's Labor Party, as its name implies, has long been associated with trade unionism.
正如其名,英国工党和工会组织的关系由来已久。
Its current leader, Ed Miliband, owes his position to votes from public-sector unions.
其现任领导Miliband把自己得到的位置归功于来自公共部门工会组织的投票。
At the state level their influence can be even more fearsome.
从州范围来看,他们的影响更为吓人。
Mark Baldassare of the Public Policy Institute of California points out that much of the state's budget is patrolled by unions.
加利福尼亚州公共政策研究院的Mark Baldassare指出,本州大部分预算都由工会来检查。
The teachers' unions keep an eye on schools, the CCPOA on prisons and a variety of labor groups on health care.
教师工会关注学校,加利福尼亚感化治安官协会关心监狱,各型各色的劳工团体关注卫生保健。
In many rich countries average wages in the state sector are higher than in the private one.
在很多富裕国家,公共部门的平均工资要高于私营部门的平均工资。
But the real gains come in benefits and work practices.
但是真正的收入来源于利润和工作表现。
Politicians have repeatedly "backloaded" public-sector pay deals,
政客已不停地加强公共部门的工资待遇,
keeping the pay increases modest but adding to holidays and especially pensions that are already generous.
工资涨幅不大,但却加长本来就不少的假期,特别是增加本来就很多的养老保险金。
Reform has been vigorously opposed, perhaps most egregiously in education,
对于变革的反对一直都很强烈,在教育方面最为惊人。
where charter schools, academies and merit pay all faced drawn-out battles.
在教育方面,契约学校、专科学校、绩效奖都面临着持久战。
Even though there is plenty of evidence that the quality of the teachers is the most important variable,
尽管有大量证据表明教师的质量是最重要的变量,
teachers' unions have fought against getting rid of bad ones and promoting good ones.
但教师工会反对解雇不好的教师,提升好教师。
As the cost to everyone else has become clearer, politicians have begun to clamp down.
对其他每个人的支出变得更为清晰,政客开始强制执行。
In Wisconsin the unions have rallied thousands of supporters against Scott Walker, the hardline Republican governor.
在威斯康辛州,工会集结了成千上万的支持者,反对走强硬路线的州长,即共和党人Scott Walker。
But many within the public sector suffer under the current system, too.
但很多任职于公共部门的工作人员也在目前的体制下受罪。
John Donahue at Harvard's Kennedy School points out that the norms of culture in Western civil services
哈佛肯尼迪学院的John Donahue指出,西方公务员系统的文化准则
suit those who want to stay put but is bad for high achievers.
适合这些想留在原地过安逸生活的人们,但并不适合那些表现好的人们。
The only American public-sector workers who earn well above $250,000 a year are university sports coaches and the president of the United States.
任职于美国公共部门的工作人员中,只有大学体育教练和美国总统每年的收入远远高于250,000美元。
Bankers' fat pay packets have attracted much criticism,
银行的高收入招致了很多批评,
but a public-sector system that does not reward high achievers may be a much bigger problem for America.
但对于美国来讲,在公共部门体制中,没有给表现好的工作人员足够的回报可能会成为更为严重的问题。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
thriving ['θriaiviŋ]

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adj. 旺盛的;蒸蒸日上的;繁荣的 v. 兴旺(thr

 
budget ['bʌdʒit]

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n. 预算
vt. 编预算,为 ... 做预算

 
modest ['mɔdist]

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adj. 谦虚的,适度的,端庄的

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fearsome ['fiəsəm]

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adj. 可怕的;害怕的;极大的

 
vigorously

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adv. 精神旺盛地,活泼地

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prime [praim]

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adj. 最初的,首要的,最好的,典型的
n.

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charter ['tʃɑ:tə]

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n. 宪章,特许,(船、机、车等的)租赁
vt

 
generous ['dʒenərəs]

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adj. 慷慨的,宽宏大量的,丰盛的,味浓的

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current ['kʌrənt]

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n. (水、气、电)流,趋势
adj. 流通的

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opposed [ə'pəuzd]

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adj. 反对的,敌对的 v. 和 ... 起冲突,反抗

 

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