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李克强总理夏季达沃斯论坛对话交流实录(2)(中英对照)

来源:可可英语 编辑:max   VIP免费外教试听课 |  可可官方微信:ikekenet

Mark Benioff, Chairman and CEO of Salesforce: It's great to be here in the conference. Your speech yesterday was excellent and was very meaningful to me personally. As you know, there have been a lot of transitions and changes in the US since I was here last just a year ago. I was very interested in hearing your comments about these changes if possible. Now, the Chinese government has placed great importance, you spoke about it last year as well, on the development of new companies and entrepreneurs, and on mass innovation and entrepreneurship, which you also articulated many times. So what challenges do you see based on what is happening in the world today facing this effort? Tell me also how can we both from the US and also the international business community participate more meaningfully in your efforts, including your Belt and Road Initiative.

美国赛富时公司董事长兼首席执行官马克·贝尼奥夫:非常高兴今天能够有机会再次来到夏季达沃斯。昨天我认真聆听您的演讲,感到深受启发。自我出席夏季达沃斯这些年以来,在美国国内已经发生了巨大的变化,我也很愿意聆听您对于这些形势变化有什么评论?另外,我知道中国政府高度重视中小企业的发展,推进大众创业、万众创新。我在其他场合,包括去年夏季达沃斯论坛上,都听您谈到过对有关问题的看法。我想特别了解的是,在当前不断变化的大背景之下,中国推进这些工作的努力面临什么样的挑战或者复杂因素?美国企业和国际工商界,能够再做些什么,更加有效地帮助中国推进相关的努力,包括在"一带一路"倡议下的合作?
Premier Li: China and the US are the world's largest developing country and largest developed country respectively. Steady growth of China-US relations and expansion of our economic and commercial relations will bring tremendous benefits to people of the two countries and also to world peace, development and cooperation. No matter how the situation in our respective countries may evolve, we are sure about one thing, that is, China-US relations have always kept moving ahead despite ups and downs in the past several decades. Our two-way trade has seen strong growth, in particular, from just about $1 billion before we established diplomatic ties to over $500 billion last year. It would be fair to say that China and the US now have forged a community of inseparable interests.
李克强:中国和美国分别是世界上最大的发展中国家和最大的发达国家,中美关系的稳定发展,尤其是经贸关系的不断扩大,不仅可以造福两国人民,而且有利于世界的和平发展与合作。不管两国国内形势怎样变化,有一点我们抱着坚定的信念,就是中美关系几十年来有风雨,但一直是向前行的,尤其在经贸关系方面,我们的双边贸易额从建交前的10亿美元左右发展到去年5000多亿美元,中美已经是不可分割的利益共同体。
The Chinese government's initiative of mass entrepreneurship and innovation is first and foremost about employment. The government faces quite a big pressure in terms of employment, as we need to generate as many as 15 million new urban jobs each year to accommodate new entrants into the labor force. As big companies enhance efficiency and introduce more robots and manipulators, it is only natural that the total number of jobs they can offer has been somewhat declining. With government efforts to widen market access, as many as 15,000 small and micro businesses are getting registered on an average day in China, and they have been a large source of new jobs. Now in China, small and micro businesses provide 80 percent of all jobs. They are the backbone of inclusive growth.
中国政府着力推进大众创业、万众创新,首先是从就业角度考虑的。中国每年城镇新成长劳动力1500万人,就业压力较大,而大企业要提高效率,会更多应用机械手、机器人,就业容量实际上是在下降的。我们通过放宽市场准入,每天新增1.5万户以上小微企业,提供了大量的就业岗位。现在小微企业提供的就业岗位已经占了全部就业岗位的80%,这是包容性增长的基础。
Second, this initiative is intended to meet the needs for innovation. The new industrial revolution has brought about a major shift in the marketplace, which is the exponential growth in individualistic customer demands. Meeting these demands requires flexible business models and innovation in management and organizational structures. The SMEs have an edge in adaptability. As a Chinese idiom goes, it is easy for a small boat to shift direction.
第二,"双创"是适应创新需要而推动的。因为在新一轮工业革命过程当中,市场发生了巨大变化,个性化市场需求日益增长,甚至是呈倍数或几何级增长,这就需要有比较灵活的经营模式、创新方式和组织结构,而中小企业在这方面有很强的适应性,用中国的俗语说,就是船小好调头。
Third, the initiative of mass entrepreneurship and innovation is a response to the trend of integrated development among large, medium and small companies. Not just small companies make innovations to accommodate special needs, many big companies have also been engaged in customized production, which requires adjustments in their organizational structures. I visited a local equipment manufacturer in Dalian, which has opened a lot of maker spaces on its production lines. The maker teams are able to remodel products according to customer needs. Although this company produces large equipment, 85 percent of its products are made to order. Not just this company, many large companies are doing the same.
第三,"双创"适应了大中小企业融通发展的趋势,因为不仅是小企业在进行创新以适应个性化的需求,现在中国的很多大企业也在进行定制化生产,以满足市场多层次的需要,这样也要对内部组织结构进行改造。我这次考察了大连一家装备制造企业,它的生产线上就产生了诸多个创客空间,每个小团体可以对生产线上的产品进行个性化改造,以适应市场需求。虽然这家企业生产的是大型的产品,但是它的个性化定制已经占到85%。不仅这家企业,中国很多的大企业都在这么做。
Naturally, we also need to overcome some difficulties in the process of promoting mass entrepreneurship and innovation.
当然,在推动大众创业、万众创新过程当中,我们要克服一些困难。
First, the government needs to shed its vested interests, lower the threshold for market access, and spend more energy on compliance oversight. The playing field ought to be level, and we can never allow sales of shoddy or counterfeited products, fraud and violations of intellectual property rights.
首先,从政府角度,要砍掉既得的利益,降低市场准入的门槛,同时要用更多精力来进行事中事后监管,使这个市场的竞争是公平的,是不允许假冒伪劣、坑蒙拐骗、侵犯知识产权发生的。这对政府转变职能是一个重大考验。
Second, the financial sector has come under strain. It may be a global challenge for SMEs to get loans as all banks seem to favor big companies. China is no exception. This is why we are encouraging financial inclusion in China by providing incentives to financial institutions to lend to SMEs.
第二,对金融发展也是新的挑战。中小企业贷款可能在全世界都是一个难题,银行家们总愿意把资金贷给那些大企业,在中国也有这种情况。所以现在我们正在推动发展普惠金融,在政策方面给予一定的支持,让银行贷款尽可能向中小企业倾斜。
Third, as SMEs make innovation and pursue integrated development with large and medium-sized companies, how to incentivize inventors and innovators to make further innovations by protecting intellectual property rights has become a challenge. Now applications for patents and inventions from SMEs account for 70 percent of the total. But this does involve some disputes. For those big companies that have makers and small businesses at maker spaces on their production lines, the challenge is how to share the profits between them and their smaller partners to promote common development.
第三,在知识产权保护方面,中小企业在不断创新,而且又同大中企业融合发展。如何保护知识产权、通过保护知识产权来激励发明者、创造者,是需要探索的问题。现在中国中小企业发明专利的申请量占到70%,这里面的确也会有一些纠纷。在大企业推动创新方面,如何拓展容纳创客的空间,让生产线上有诸多的小企业,这些小企业怎么和大企业进行分配,促进共同发展,也是需要探索的课题。
I cited the example of the company I visited in Dalian, whose owner is a visionary man. He told me that he has been able to involve a lot of makers on his production lines to improve products, and the value generated through such cooperation were divided at a ratio of 30 percent to 70 percent. I asked him who took 30 percent and who took 70 percent. He said 70 percent of the profits went to makers and he took the smaller share. I praised him for his courageous generosity. He replied that had it not been for those makers, he would not be able to get even 10 percent of newly generated revenue. The story of the company shows that it is necessary to protect intellectual property rights and at the same time incentivize innovations. This requires further efforts on our part to explore an effective approach. Although the makers make use of the equipment of the company for their innovations, the owner of the company recognizes the superior value of the makers' ideas. That said, it won't be easy for everyone to recognize this.
我刚才举例的大连那家企业的企业家很有远见,当生产线上的创客空间对企业产品进行个性化改造后,所创造的价值是企业家和创客空间三七分成。我就问谁是三、谁是七?企业家回答说,创客们是七,我是三。我说你很有勇气啊,把大头让给了创客。他回答说,如果没有他们,我不要说"三",连"一"都拿不到。这就说明,知识产权既要保护,又要能够有激励的机制,需要我们在探索中前行。创客们虽然用的是这家企业的设备进行创造,但企业家认识到这些创客们的点子更有价值。要让所有人都有这样的认识并不是一件容易的事情。
Patrice Motsepe, Founder and CEO of African Rainbow Minerals: I am a businessman from South Africa. I was the first Chairman of the BRICS Business Council. I saw how the BRICS countries, but Africa in particular, benefited immensely from the growth of the Chinese economy as well as from trade with China. I have no doubt that the rest of the world has benefited immensely from trading with China. My question is: The WTO's Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA) entered into force earlier this year. China has been an active supporter in this area. What will be the major challenges in enforcing the agreement? And what further steps will China adopt to advance global trade facilitation?
南非非洲彩虹矿业公司创始人兼首席执行官帕特里斯·莫特赛比:我是一位来自南非的企业家,我是金砖机制项下商会的首位主席。我们看到金砖机制的发展给相关成员国,尤其是给非洲国家带来了极大的益处,我们都从中国的经济增长和与中国的经贸关系中受益,我相信全世界也从中受益。我的问题是,世界贸易组织《贸易便利化协定》已于今年年初生效,中国一直是贸易便利化的积极支持者,您认为在该协定的执行过程中会遇到什么样的挑战?中国会采取什么措施来进一步推动全球贸易的便利化?
Premier Li: You raised a very important question, particularly in the context of the growing backlash against globalization. There have been as many as 3,000 protectionist measures adopted by various countries in the past ten years since the outbreak of the international financial crisis. The entry into force of the Trade Facilitation Agreement, which was adopted by the WTO in 2013, would be beneficial for global economic recovery and for guiding market expectations.
李克强:你问的问题很重要,尤其是在当前逆全球化思潮有所抬头的背景下。国际金融危机爆发近十年来,各国出台的贸易保护措施不下3000项。2013年世界贸易组织通过了《贸易便利化协定》。协定的生效不仅有利于世界经济的复苏,而且还对引导市场预期有重要的作用。
The TFA is the first multilateral agreement on trade in goods China acceded to after joining the WTO. The Chinese State Council completed domestic procedures for its ratification in less than two years. As things stand, some one third of the WTO members are yet to go through ratification procedures. We hope all parties will work together for the TFA to be fully implemented this year. According to estimates by experts, the TFA, once implemented, will add at least $1 trillion to global trade. That would undoubtedly be good news for a steady global recovery. While observing the TFA, China will advance trade facilitation as much as possible in line with its national conditions. First, we will consolidate the mandate of various agencies to streamline customs clearance procedures for businesses by establishing "single window" service centers. Second, we will make customs clearance faster. We intend to shorten the time needed for customs clearance by another one third this year, and will aim to meet the most advanced international standards regarding customs clearance procedures and speed in the not so distant future. Third, we will enhance cooperation with other countries, particularly in mutual recognition of inspection between regulatory authorities, to avoid repetitive procedures and lower costs for businesses.
《贸易便利化协定》是中国加入世界贸易组织之后参与并达成的第一个多边货物贸易协定,而且在不到两年的时间,中国国务院就通过了国内的法定程序,批准这个文件。但现在还有近三分之一的世界贸易组织成员没有履行国内批准程序。我们希望各方能够共同努力,使《贸易便利化协定》在今年真正全面实施。据专家们估算,这至少会增加1万亿美元的贸易额,对世界经济的稳定复苏无疑将是有益的。中国不仅要履行这个协定,而且要根据自身国情尽可能推进贸易便利化。首先,我们要推动单一窗口,在相关管理上把体制内部很多分管部门合并成一个窗口,简化企业在通关过程当中的手续。第二,要缩短通关的时间。今年将把通关时间再缩短三分之一,而且跟国际最先进的通关程序、时间进行对标,争取在不太长的时间内达到世界先进水平。第三,加强国际合作,特别是监管部门进行监管的相互认证,使企业在通关过程当中避免重复认证,减少成本。
These are the technical measures we will take. What is most important, I believe, is that we must recognize the valuable role of free trade in boosting global economic recovery. Trade liberalization and investment facilitation is the hallmark of free trade. When everyone acts to promote free trade with an open-minded approach, this will provide consumers with more choices and compel domestic companies to innovate and upgrade. In the meantime, we should take account of the varying national conditions of different countries, and adopt measures to cushion the impact on certain sectors through consultation among countries on the basis of mutual understanding and mutual accommodation. But overall, we need to keep to the right direction.
这些都是技术性的措施,但是我认为最关键的是,我们一定要树立一个明确的思想,就是自由贸易是推动世界经济复苏的良药。在推动自由贸易过程中,贸易投资自由化便利化是自由贸易的重要特征,大家都以开放的心态来推动自由贸易,会使消费者有更多的选择,也会倒逼本国企业创新升级。当然也要考虑各国国情,避免对某些行业冲击过大,可以有一些缓冲的措施,这需要互谅互让,协商解决,但是大方向是应该坚持的。
Professor Schwab: Mr. Premier, I want to take this opportunity to ask you a question about the development of the internet and digitization. The Internet Plus policy is a very important national strategy. But if we look at digitization, we can no longer make differentiation between digital industries and old-fashioned industries. Today, every industry is digitized. Could you share with us what your experiences and challenges are in this aspect? Particularly, how the international business community could be more meaningfully engaged into China's efforts of overall digitization of its economy?
施瓦布:总理先生,我也想借这个机会问您一个关于互联网和数字化发展的问题。"互联网+"已经成为中国的国家发展战略,另外随着数字化的进一步发展,已经很难区别传统产业与数字化产业,他们彼此之间在实现融合的发展。我想问,您对这种发展有什么体会?数字化发展在中国还面临什么样的挑战?尤其是国际工商界如何能够更有效地参与到中国的数字化发展进程中?
Premier Li: The introduction of the internet has given rise to a mushrooming of new forms of business. And big data application has become a trend. We must adapt to this trend in order to seize as many opportunities as possible. Traditional industries did come under challenges. I once cited the example of physical stores going through the painful experience of confronting or even conflicting with online shops. Now, many physical stores have also opened their own online stores, which has made them more competitive. As we can see, notwithstanding the numerous challenges, we have more ways and means to overcome them.
李克强:"互联网+"产生的新业态可以说是层出不穷。大数据的发展已经成为一个潮流,我们只有顺应这个潮流,才能够抓住新的机遇。但与此同时,传统产业确实在经受挑战,我曾经举例说过网购和实体店就有过冲突,或者说是不协调的痛苦经历,但是现在实体店也在进行网上销售,反而增强了它的实力。所以,挑战是巨大的,但是应对挑战的办法更多。
The Internet Plus strategy the Chinese government has been advancing is inherently open to the world. We have in China a large number of cloud platforms that are attractive to foreign businesses or individuals. Foreign companies are getting registered on such platforms in large numbers. In sectors of basic telecommunications and value-added services in China, many business areas are now open to foreign investors, which represents the highest level of openness so far among all developing countries. This means tremendous opportunities for foreign firms.
中国在大力推动"互联网+",这本身就是面向全球的。我们有很多云平台吸纳国外的企业和个人参与,外国企业注册的数量在大幅度增加。在基础电信和增值服务方面,中国也对外资开放了很多业务,这在发展中国家可以说是最高开放水平。外国投资者在这个领域有着巨大的发展空间。
Furthermore, China has over 900 million mobile broadband users and over 730 million Internet users. We are also actively advancing cross-border e-commerce. Foreign companies can sell their products and services on the e-commerce platforms. Nothing is impossible as long as you act on your ideas. In this process, the Chinese government will exercise prudent yet accommodating regulation to make sure that foreign companies can grow together with Chinese companies and join in our efforts to boost the Chinese economy and deliver greater convenience to the Chinese people. For the online economy to attract more consumers, security is the precondition. We must work together to crack down on fraud, sales of fake and shoddy products online, and theft of trade secrets.
同时,中国的移动宽带用户已经达到9亿多,互联网上网人数7.3亿多人,同时我们还在积极推进跨境电子商务。外国企业可以利用这样的平台销售产品和服务,只要你们能想到,就有可能做到。中国政府也会采取包容审慎的监管方式,让你们与中国企业共同发展,为中国经济助力,使中国人民的生活更方便。当然,网络经济要吸引更多消费者,安全是前提。我们需要共同努力来打击网络欺诈、通过网络销售假冒伪劣商品乃至于盗取商业秘密的行为。
To conclude, let me emphasize one point. Just now a few business leaders have asked questions and introduced their businesses. I hope all the delegates here and the media will pay attention not just to the questions they asked and the answers I gave, but also to what their businesses have achieved in the Chinese market and their support for China's modernization. Thank you.
最后,我想强调一下,刚才几位企业家做了提问,也都介绍了他们自己的企业。希望在座的各位和媒体,不仅关注他们的提问和我的回答,也要关注他们企业所取得的业绩,以及对中国现代化建设的支持。谢谢你们。
Professor Schwab: We should be very grateful to the Premier for being here at this dialogue and for having shared with us his insights and many specific policies and measures, particularly some vivid examples. We also want to express our appreciation to the participation of such a prominent government delegation which has accompanied you, Mr. Premier. And we wish the Chinese government all the best in the implementation of those strategies. And you can be assured that you have the goodwill of all those here, and you have the strong commitment of the World Economic Forum to contribute to the success of the development of China.
施瓦布:感谢李总理今天出席对话会,与我们既分享了战略思想,也有许多具体的政策措施,特别是举出了鲜活的例子。也感谢您率领中国政府代表团参加今年的夏季达沃斯论坛。我们祝中国政府落实各项发展战略继续取得巨大成功。世界经济论坛和在座的各位企业家也会继续积极参与和支持中国的发展。

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participation [pɑ:.tisi'peiʃən]

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n. 参加,参与

 
accommodating [ə'kɔmədeitiŋ]

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adj. 乐于助人的 动词accommodate的现在分

 
commitment [kə'mitmənt]

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n. 承诺,保证; 确定,实行

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visionary ['viʒənəri]

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adj. 幻影的,幻想的,有远见卓识的 n. 空想家,梦

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compel [kəm'pel]

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v. 强迫,迫使,使不得已

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hallmark ['hɔ:lmɑ:k]

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n. 纯度标记,标志,特征 vt. 标纯度

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particular [pə'tikjulə]

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adj. 特殊的,特别的,特定的,挑剔的
n.

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beneficial [.beni'fiʃəl]

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adj. 有益的,有利的

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grateful ['greitfəl]

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adj. 感激的,感谢的

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prudent ['pru:dənt]

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adj. 谨慎的,有远见的,精打细算的

 

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