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美国根深蒂固的种族歧视问题凸显美式人权的虚伪(2)(中英对照)

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2. Racial discrimination in the economic sector

(二)经济领域中的种族歧视
Racial discrimination places racial minorities in a disadvantaged position in employment, career development, earnings, and general economic conditions. Racial discrimination in the economic sector tends to be implicit, but has a decisive impact on the life of racial minorities.
由于种族歧视的客观存在,少数种族在就业、职业发展、工资收入、经济状况等方面处于全方位的劣势地位。经济领域中的种族歧视相对隐性,但其对于少数种族命运的影响却是决定性的。
Racial minorities are disadvantaged in the job market. According to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) from past years, people of African and Latin American ancestry have a much higher unemployment rate than those of Caucasian ancestry, and the racial differences as manifested in the employment rate have not changed with the changing economic situation. African Americans have an unemployment rate twice as high as white people, and Latinos about 40 percent higher than white people.
少数种族在就业市场中处于不利地位。从美国劳工统计局历年的统计数据来看,非洲裔和拉美裔的失业率远高于白人,且就业率上的种族差异并没有因经济形势的变化而发生改变。非洲裔的失业率通常为白人的两倍左右;拉美裔失业率通常比白人高出40%左右。
Racial minorities face wage discrimination. According to the BLS data from 2010 to 2018, in terms of the median weekly earnings for full-time employees, African Americans had average wages about 30 percent lower than those of white people, and those of Latinos about 40 percent lower. An October 9, 2014 report on the USA Today website stated that in the same high-skilled positions such as computer programmers and software developers, Asians make US$8,146 less than whites per year.
少数种族面临薪酬歧视。美国劳工统计局2010年至2018年的数据显示,非洲裔全职工作的周薪中位值平均比白人低近30%,拉美裔全职工作的周薪中位值平均比白人低近40%。《今日美国报》网站2014年10月9日报道,美国经济研究所的研究显示,同等工作职位中亚裔的收入明显低于白人,例如在计算机编程和软件开发等高科技职位中,亚裔的年收入与白人之间的差距平均高达8146美元。
Racial minorities live in poverty and lack access to social welfare. According to a 2015 report by Cable News Network (CNN), the income gap between various ethnicities had widened further – the wealth possessed by white people was 12 times higher than that of African Americans and nearly 11 times higher than that of Latinos. According to research published by the Economic Policy Institute (EPI) on February 13, 2017, more than one in four black households have zero or negative net worth. Latinos made up 28.1 percent of the 45 million living in poverty among the total US population. 37 percent of 14.5 million children living in poverty were of Latin American ancestry. Some 26 percent of African Americans were living in poverty and 12 percent in extreme poverty. The proportion of those of African ancestry among all homeless people in the US was about four times the percentage of African Americans to the total population of the US. About 60 percent of shelter residents were racial minorities. In emergency shelter sites, the number of children of African ancestry under age five was 28 times higher than their counterparts of Caucasian ancestry.
少数种族贫困状况严重,社会保障堪忧。美国有线电视新闻网2015年报道,种族之间的收入不平等进一步扩大,白人拥有的财富是非洲裔的12倍,是拉美裔的近11倍。美国经济政策研究所2017年2月13日发布的报告显示,大部分非洲裔和拉美裔劳动人口家庭的养老金账户中没有任何资产。超过四分之一的非洲裔家庭的净资产为零或负数。美国4500万贫困人口中28.1%为拉美裔。在美国1450万贫困儿童中,有37%为拉美裔。26%的非洲裔人口处于贫困之中,12%的非洲裔生活在极度贫困之中。与在美国整体人口中所占比例相比,非洲裔无家可归者的比例高出3倍。近60%的收容所居住者是少数种族。紧急避难所中5岁以下的非洲裔儿童是白人同类群体的29倍。
3. Racial discrimination in the social area
(三)社会生活中的种族歧视
Racial minorities experience discrimination and bullying in educational institutions. According to civil rights data from the Department of Education for 2013 and 2014, of 2.8 million students who were suspended from school, 1.1 million were African Americans, and the likelihood of suspension for students of African ancestry was 2.8 times higher than that of white students. A study reveals that students of Asian ancestry are bullied at school more than those of other ethnicities. Some 54 percent teenagers of Asian ancestry reported that they had been bullied at school, while the proportions were 38.4 percent for those of African ancestry and 34.3 percent for those of Latin American ancestry. The likelihood of students of Asian ancestry being bullied on the internet is three times that of other ethnicities.
少数种族在教育机构中遭受普遍的歧视与欺凌。美国教育部2013年至2014年民权数据显示,遭受离校停课处分的280万学生中,有110万是非洲裔学生,非洲裔学生遭受离校停课处分的可能性是白人学生的3.8倍。研究显示,亚裔学生在校遭欺凌多于其他族裔,54%的亚裔青少年表示曾在校园遭遇欺凌,非洲裔、拉美裔的这一比例分别为38.4%和34.3%,亚裔学生在网络上受到嘲讽或辱骂的比例是其他族裔的3倍。
Racial discrimination occurs frequently in commercial and industrial establishments. According to an October 23, 2013 report by The Huffington Post, Trayon Christian, a college student of African ancestry, bought a US$350 belt at Barneys in New York City, yet was suspected of fraud, handcuffed and arrested by police for interrogation even though he had shown the purchase receipt and his ID. His attorney Michael Palillo said, "His only crime is being a young black man." According to a May 27, 2018 report by the Los Angeles Times, data from the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) showed that black applicants were rejected at more than double the rate of non-Hispanic white applicants on all types of loans; black and Hispanic applicants were subject to annual percentage rates (APRs) that were at least 1.5 percentage points above the "average prime offer rate" for loans of a similar type.
工商业机构歧视少数种族事件频发。《赫芬顿邮报》网站2013年10月23日报道,非洲裔大学生特雷因·克里斯汀在巴尼百货公司购买了一条价值350美元的皮带,店员怀疑交易涉嫌欺诈并报警,他在出示了购买凭证和身份证件的情况下,依然被警察戴上手铐带到当地警局讯问。其辩护律师说:“他唯一的罪行就是身为一个年轻的非洲裔。”《洛杉矶时报》网站2018年5月27日报道,联邦消费者金融保护局的数据显示,在所有贷款类型中,非洲裔申请人被拒绝的比例是非拉美裔白人的2倍以上。非洲裔和拉美裔还被收取更高的贷款利率,他们通常要承担比平均利率高出1.5个百分点的年利率。
Racial discrimination and racial segregation in the workplace has been explicit. A study revealed that obvious racial segregation was found in 19 of 58 industries investigated. According to a December 11, 2018 report by WFAA.com, an African American employee from Zodiac Seats US sued his employer for racial discrimination and hostile work environment, saying that his white coworkers called him "a black monkey", and two female whites even left a noose in his workplace as retaliation after he had reported their use of racial slurs.
工作场所中的种族歧视和种族隔离现象明显。一项研究显示,58个被调查行业中有19个呈现出明显的种族隔离倾向。WFAA网站2018年12月11日报道,美国卓达飞机座椅制造公司的一名非洲裔员工,对公司存在种族歧视的工作环境提起诉讼。白人员工对他使用种族歧视性语言,称他为“黑猴子”。他在向公司举报后遭到报复,两位白人女同事竟将绞索放在他的工作台上。
African Americans have experienced various forms of implicit and explicit racial discrimination. According to an October 31, 2016 report by USA Today, research targeting Seattle and Boston on Uber taxi booking revealed that African Americans waited 30 percent longer than white people for Uber rides, and their appointments were canceled by drivers twice as frequently as those of the latter. According to a November 16, 2016 report by the Financial Times, an experiment conducted by Harvard Business School proved that implicit discrimination against African Americans is universal. When requesting accommodation, applicants with distinctively African-American names were 16 percent less likely to have their bookings accepted. This study also revealed that when the name used on a resume was distinctively African-American, job applicants were significantly less likely to get an interview than when identical applications with names that could be perceived as white.
非洲裔在日常生活中面临各种隐性和显性歧视。《今日美国报》2016年报道,在西雅图和波士顿等城市的调查显示,在使用优步软件叫车时,非洲裔乘客等待时间要比白人乘客大约长30%,且预约被取消率比白人乘客高出一倍。英国《金融时报》2016年11月16日报道,哈佛大学商学院的一项实验研究证明,生活中处处体现出对非洲裔美国人的隐形歧视。研究者在使用虚拟个人资料订房时发现,预订者的姓名明显像是非洲裔美国人的,其预订被接受的可能性要低16%。使用虚拟简历来应聘工作的,非洲裔姓名的简历得到面试的几率要显著低于内容一样但使用被认为可能是白人姓名的简历。
4. Racial discrimination against Native Americans and other indigenous peoples
(四)对印第安人等原住民的种族歧视
Indigenous people experienced serious economic and health problems. According to a February 15, 2011 report in the Daily Mail, statistics showed that more than 60 percent of the residents of Ziebach County in South Dakota, a community mainly composed of Native Americans, lived on or below the poverty line, and unemployment rates hit 90 percent in the winter. In 2013, James Anaya, the then UN special rapporteur on the rights of indigenous peoples, pointed out that indigenous peoples in the US had a poverty rate twice as high as the national average, and that their average life expectancy was 5.2 years shorter than the national mean.
原住民经济状况堪忧,健康问题突出。英国《每日邮报》2011年2月15日报道,2011年的统计数据显示,主要由印第安人聚居的南达科他州齐巴克县有超过六成居民生活在贫困线以下,冬季失业率高达90%。2013年,时任联合国人权理事会原住民权利问题特别报告员詹姆斯·安娜亚的报告指出,美国原住民的贫困率是全国贫困率的两倍,原住民的寿命比全国平均水平低5.2岁。
Conspicuous problems exist in protecting the rights of indigenous women. On February 13, 2013, James Anaya pointed out that violence against indigenous women by non-indigenous residents was commonplace. According to an estimate by the US Department of Justice, the ratio of indigenous women who had been victims of violence was more than double the national average. As many as one third of indigenous women had suffered violence, and 80 percent of rape suspects were not indigenous people. The UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, in reviewing the United States' 7th-9th combined report on implementing the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, demanded that the country prevent and fight violence against indigenous women, and ensure that all indigenous women victims of violence have access to justice and compensation.
原住民妇女权利保障问题突出。2013年2月13日,时任联合国人权理事会原住民权利问题特别报告员詹姆斯·安娜亚指出,美国原住民妇女遭到非原住民暴力侵害的案件多发。美国司法部估计,原住民妇女遭受暴力侵害的比例是全国平均值的两倍多,原住民妇女遭受强暴的比例高达三分之一,80%的强奸案嫌犯不是原住民。联合国消除种族歧视委员会对美国第七次至第九次合并履约报告的审议要求美国防止和打击对原住民妇女的暴力行为,从法律上和实际上保障所有原住民妇女暴力受害者享有诉诸司法和得到赔偿的权利。
5. Racial discrimination against Muslims
(五)对穆斯林群体的种族歧视
The US government carried out large-scale surveillance on Muslims. On December 1, 2011, the American Civil Liberties Union asserted that the FBI, in violation of federal laws, used its pervasive unauthorized internet access to secretly collect intelligence on Muslims and some other organizations. A report by the Pew Research Center showed that 52 percent of US Muslims thought they were under government surveillance, 28 percent of Muslims claimed they had the experience of being mistaken for suspects, and 21 percent of Muslims said that they had to go through separate security checks at airports. A poll suggested that more than half of American Muslims believed that the government's counter-terrorism policies involved additional surveillance and checks targeted solely against them.
美国政府对穆斯林群体大肆进行监控活动。2011年12月1日,美国公民自由联合会称,美国联邦调查局违反联邦法律,利用其广泛的网络越权秘密地收集穆斯林和一些其他组织的情报。皮尤研究中心的报告显示,52%的美国穆斯林认为受到政府监视,28%的穆斯林认为曾有过被视为嫌疑犯的经历,21%的穆斯林声称他们在机场过安检时被单独检查。一项民意调查表明,超过半数的美国穆斯林认为政府的反恐政策单独针对他们增加监控和检查。
Muslims suffered increasingly severe discrimination. On January 27, 2017, the US government issued an administrative order, banning citizens of Iran, Iraq, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria and Yemen from entering its territory. In view of the fact that Muslims form the majority of the population in all those countries, the order was widely interpreted as a "Muslim ban", and it sparked widespread protests in the US and many other places across the world. In a survey by the Pew Research Center in early 2017, 75 percent of adult Muslims in America believed that discrimination against Muslims was pervasive in the country, while 69 percent of the general public held the same view. Half of Muslims felt that it had become more and more difficult to be a Muslim in the US in recent years.
穆斯林群体遭遇日趋严重的歧视。2017年1月27日,美国政府发布一项行政命令,禁止伊朗、伊拉克、利比亚、索马里、苏丹、叙利亚和也门等7个国家的公民进入美国。由于禁令所涉国家均以穆斯林人口为主,因此该行政令也被普遍解读为“穆斯林禁令”。这一禁令在美国国内和世界各地都引发了广泛抗议。皮尤研究中心2017年初的一项调查显示,75%的美国成年穆斯林表示美国社会存在大量对穆斯林的歧视,69%的普通公众也持相同观点。50%的穆斯林表示,近年来在美国做一名穆斯林变得更加困难。
Religious discrimination is on the rise as events involving insults and attacks against Muslims increased in number. Muslims make up less than one percent of the US population, but 14 percent of the religious discrimination cases investigated by the federal government have involved Muslims, as have one quarter of the religious discrimination cases in workplaces. In September 2012, an American director shot a film insulting the Islamic prophet and released it online, evoking waves of protest by Muslims across the globe. According to a P