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2. Racial discrimination in the economic sector

Racial discrimination places racial minorities in a disadvantaged position in employment, career development, earnings, and general economic conditions. Racial discrimination in the economic sector tends to be implicit, but has a decisive impact on the life of racial minorities.
Racial minorities are disadvantaged in the job market. According to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) from past years, people of African and Latin American ancestry have a much higher unemployment rate than those of Caucasian ancestry, and the racial differences as manifested in the employment rate have not changed with the changing economic situation. African Americans have an unemployment rate twice as high as white people, and Latinos about 40 percent higher than white people.
Racial minorities face wage discrimination. According to the BLS data from 2010 to 2018, in terms of the median weekly earnings for full-time employees, African Americans had average wages about 30 percent lower than those of white people, and those of Latinos about 40 percent lower. An October 9, 2014 report on the USA Today website stated that in the same high-skilled positions such as computer programmers and software developers, Asians make US$8,146 less than whites per year.
Racial minorities live in poverty and lack access to social welfare. According to a 2015 report by Cable News Network (CNN), the income gap between various ethnicities had widened further – the wealth possessed by white people was 12 times higher than that of African Americans and nearly 11 times higher than that of Latinos. According to research published by the Economic Policy Institute (EPI) on February 13, 2017, more than one in four black households have zero or negative net worth. Latinos made up 28.1 percent of the 45 million living in poverty among the total US population. 37 percent of 14.5 million children living in poverty were of Latin American ancestry. Some 26 percent of African Americans were living in poverty and 12 percent in extreme poverty. The proportion of those of African ancestry among all homeless people in the US was about four times the percentage of African Americans to the total population of the US. About 60 percent of shelter residents were racial minorities. In emergency shelter sites, the number of children of African ancestry under age five was 28 times higher than their counterparts of Caucasian ancestry.
3. Racial discrimination in the social area
Racial minorities experience discrimination and bullying in educational institutions. According to civil rights data from the Department of Education for 2013 and 2014, of 2.8 million students who were suspended from school, 1.1 million were African Americans, and the likelihood of suspension for students of African ancestry was 2.8 times higher than that of white students. A study reveals that students of Asian ancestry are bullied at school more than those of other ethnicities. Some 54 percent teenagers of Asian ancestry reported that they had been bullied at school, while the proportions were 38.4 percent for those of African ancestry and 34.3 percent for those of Latin American ancestry. The likelihood of students of Asian ancestry being bullied on the internet is three times that of other ethnicities.
Racial discrimination occurs frequently in commercial and industrial establishments. According to an October 23, 2013 report by The Huffington Post, Trayon Christian, a college student of African ancestry, bought a US$350 belt at Barneys in New York City, yet was suspected of fraud, handcuffed and arrested by police for interrogation even though he had shown the purchase receipt and his ID. His attorney Michael Palillo said, "His only crime is being a young black man." According to a May 27, 2018 report by the Los Angeles Times, data from the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) showed that black applicants were rejected at more than double the rate of non-Hispanic white applicants on all types of loans; black and Hispanic applicants were subject to annual percentage rates (APRs) that were at least 1.5 percentage points above the "average prime offer rate" for loans of a similar type.
Racial discrimination and racial segregation in the workplace has been explicit. A study revealed that obvious racial segregation was found in 19 of 58 industries investigated. According to a December 11, 2018 report by, an African American employee from Zodiac Seats US sued his employer for racial discrimination and hostile work environment, saying that his white coworkers called him "a black monkey", and two female whites even left a noose in his workplace as retaliation after he had reported their use of racial slurs.
African Americans have experienced various forms of implicit and explicit racial discrimination. According to an October 31, 2016 report by USA Today, research targeting Seattle and Boston on Uber taxi booking revealed that African Americans waited 30 percent longer than white people for Uber rides, and their appointments were canceled by drivers twice as frequently as those of the latter. According to a November 16, 2016 report by the Financial Times, an experiment conducted by Harvard Business School proved that implicit discrimination against African Americans is universal. When requesting accommodation, applicants with distinctively African-American names were 16 percent less likely to have their bookings accepted. This study also revealed that when the name used on a resume was distinctively African-American, job applicants were significantly less likely to get an interview than when identical applications with names that could be perceived as white.
4. Racial discrimination against Native Americans and other indigenous peoples
Indigenous people experienced serious economic and health problems. According to a February 15, 2011 report in the Daily Mail, statistics showed that more than 60 percent of the residents of Ziebach County in South Dakota, a community mainly composed of Native Americans, lived on or below the poverty line, and unemployment rates hit 90 percent in the winter. In 2013, James Anaya, the then UN special rapporteur on the rights of indigenous peoples, pointed out that indigenous peoples in the US had a poverty rate twice as high as the national average, and that their average life expectancy was 5.2 years shorter than the national mean.
Conspicuous problems exist in protecting the rights of indigenous women. On February 13, 2013, James Anaya pointed out that violence against indigenous women by non-indigenous residents was commonplace. According to an estimate by the US Department of Justice, the ratio of indigenous women who had been victims of violence was more than double the national average. As many as one third of indigenous women had suffered violence, and 80 percent of rape suspects were not indigenous people. The UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, in reviewing the United States' 7th-9th combined report on implementing the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, demanded that the country prevent and fight violence against indigenous women, and ensure that all indigenous women victims of violence have access to justice and compensation.
5. Racial discrimination against Muslims
The US government carried out large-scale surveillance on Muslims. On December 1, 2011, the American Civil Liberties Union asserted that the FBI, in violation of federal laws, used its pervasive unauthorized internet access to secretly collect intelligence on Muslims and some other organizations. A report by the Pew Research Center showed that 52 percent of US Muslims thought they were under government surveillance, 28 percent of Muslims claimed they had the experience of being mistaken for suspects, and 21 percent of Muslims said that they had to go through separate security checks at airports. A poll suggested that more than half of American Muslims believed that the government's counter-terrorism policies involved additional surveillance and checks targeted solely against them.
Muslims suffered increasingly severe discrimination. On January 27, 2017, the US government issued an administrative order, banning citizens of Iran, Iraq, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria and Yemen from entering its territory. In view of the fact that Muslims form the majority of the population in all those countries, the order was widely interpreted as a "Muslim ban", and it sparked widespread protests in the US and many other places across the world. In a survey by the Pew Research Center in early 2017, 75 percent of adult Muslims in America believed that discrimination against Muslims was pervasive in the country, while 69 percent of the general public held the same view. Half of Muslims felt that it had become more and more difficult to be a Muslim in the US in recent years.
Religious discrimination is on the rise as events involving insults and attacks against Muslims increased in number. Muslims make up less than one percent of the US population, but 14 percent of the religious discrimination cases investigated by the federal government have involved Muslims, as have one quarter of the religious discrimination cases in workplaces. In September 2012, an American director shot a film insulting the Islamic prophet and released it online, evoking waves of protest by Muslims across the globe. According to a P