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国民经济和社会发展计划2019年执行情况与2020年草案的报告(3)(中英对照)

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6. We promoted market-oriented reforms and further energized market entities. We upheld and improved the basic socialist economic system, and made significant progress with regard to reform of key areas and sectors.

(六)全面推进市场化改革,市场主体活力进一步激发。坚持和完善社会主义基本经济制度,重点领域、关键环节改革全面推进。

1) The business environment was further optimized. We further pushed forward with reforms to streamline administration and delegate power, improve regulation, and upgrade services. The Regulations on Improving the Business Environment were promulgated, demonstrating the efforts China is making to build a business environment evaluation system. We carried out business environment evaluations in 41 cities nationwide. The Negative List for Market Access (2019) was published and the number of items listed was reduced to 131. We worked to ensure that investment approval is conducted in line with relevant procedures, and is accessible online. The approval procedures for construction projects were further simplified. Interdepartmental oversight conducted through the random selection of both inspectors and inspection targets and the prompt release of results was rolled out incrementally. We accelerated the formulation of the list of items for the Internet Plus Oversight initiative. The functions and services of the national platform for sharing credit information were improved. We also accelerated the setting up of a new, credit-based oversight mechanism. A national online platform for government services was launched on a trial basis. The nationwide network for financial credit information database services was set up.

一是营商环境持续优化。“放管服”改革向纵深推进,《优化营商环境条例》颁布,构建中国营商环境评价体系,在全国41个城市开展营商环境评价。印发市场准入负面清单(2019年版),清单事项压减至131项。规范投资审批行为,投资审批“一网通办”水平不断提高。工程建设项目审批环节继续精简。部门联合“双随机、一公开”监管逐步推行,“互联网+监管”事项清单加快制定,全国信用信息共享平台功能和服务不断完善,以信用为基础的新型监管机制加快构建。全国一体化政务服务平台上线试运行,金融信用信息数据库服务网络覆盖全国。

2) Reforms in the areas of mixed ownership, the protection of property rights, and the nurturing of entrepreneurial spirit were pushed forward in a coordinated manner. Pilot reforms of mixed ownership were carried out in the fourth group of 160 SOEs. We strengthened the protection of property and intellectual property rights and made breakthroughs in reviewing and correcting wrongly adjudicated cases involving property rights. Steady progress was made in dedicated campaigns to address property rights disputes involving the government. The policies and measures for supporting reform and development of private enterprises and promoting healthy development of SMEs were promulgated. A sound mechanism for entrepreneurs to participate in enterprise-related policy formulation was established.

二是混合所有制改革、产权保护、激发保护企业家精神等改革联动推进。第四批160户混合所有制改革试点启动实施。加强产权和知识产权保护,甄别纠正涉产权冤错案件取得重要突破,涉政府产权纠纷问题专项治理行动有序开展。出台支持民营企业改革发展、促进中小企业健康发展的政策措施,建立健全企业家参与涉企政策制定机制。

3) We stepped up reforms for the market-based allocation of factors of production. We formulated guidelines on institutional reform to promote the social mobility of labor and talent. We revised the Securities Law, set up the Science and Technology Innovation Board and launched trials for a registration-based IPO system, and reformed and improved the loan prime rate (LPR) mechanism. We gave greater say to research institutes and universities with regard to their research, piloted the practice of granting researchers ownership of or permanent use rights over scientific and technological output at work, and set up a service system for technology transfer. The Land Administration Law and the Urban Real Estate Administration Law were revised. The secondary markets for the transfer, leasing, and mortgage of use rights for land for construction purposes were further improved, while the systems for the sale of land designated for industrial purposes through various means and for ensuring adequate market supply of such land were made more robust.

三是要素市场化配置改革加快落地。制定促进劳动力和人才社会性流动体制机制改革意见。修订证券法,设立科创板并试点注册制,改革完善贷款市场报价利率(LPR)形成机制。扩大高校和科研院所科研相关自主权,开展赋予科研人员职务科技成果所有权或长期使用权试点,构建技术转移服务体系。修订土地管理法、城市房地产管理法,建设用地使用权转让、出租、抵押二级市场进一步完善,工业用地多方式出让和市场供应体系更加健全。

4) Reforms in key areas were deepened. The China Oil & Gas Piping Network Corporation was founded. We opened up markets for upstream oil and gas exploration and exploitation.Reform measures for dividing fiscal authority and spending responsibilities between central and local governments in the areas of education, science and technology, and transportation were rolled out. More and more electricity transactions were market-based, and steady progress was made in reforms to raise the number of electricity distributors as well as in trials for the spot trading of electricity. The reform of the price-setting mechanism for on-grid electricity from coal-fired power plants, the pricing reform of on-grid electricity generated from wind power and photovoltaic power, the comprehensive reform of the pricing of water used in agriculture, and price reform in the transportation industry were all steadily advanced. The China State Railway Group Co., Ltd. and the China Post Group Co., Ltd. were established by means of restructuring. In addition, reforms for cutting links between industry associations and chambers of commerce and the government were carried out across the board.

四是重点领域改革深入推进。国家石油天然气管网集团有限公司组建成立。全面放开石油天然气上游勘查开采准入。出台教育、科技、交通运输等领域中央与地方财政事权和支出责任划分改革方案。电力交易市场化程度进一步提高,增量配电业务改革和电力现货市场建设试点稳步推进。深化燃煤发电上网电价形成机制改革,风电和光伏上网电价改革、农业水价综合改革、交通运输价格改革有序推进。改制成立中国国家铁路集团有限公司和中国邮政集团有限公司。行业协会商会与行政机关脱钩改革全面推开。

7. We continued to expand high-level opening up and worked faster to develop an open economy. We promoted opening up across more sectors and in a more thorough fashion, and stepped up efforts to develop new strengths in international economic cooperation and competition.

(七)持续深化高水平开放,开放型经济新格局加快构建。对外开放向更大范围、更宽领域、更深层次全面推进,国际经济合作和竞争新优势加快培育。

1) Joint efforts to advance the Belt and Road Initiative made solid headway. We successfully held the second Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation. China has so far signed 200 cooperation agreements with 138 countries and 30 international organizations for jointly advancing the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). Smooth progress was achieved in the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor and other projects. Active progress was made in key projects such as the Jakarta-Bandung high-speed line, the China-Laos rail line, and Gwadar port. The China-Russia east-route natural gas pipeline began operating. We established mechanisms for third-party market cooperation with 14 countries, including France, the United Kingdom, and Japan. The BRI International Green Development Coalition was launched. Steady progress was made in developing the Digital Silk Road and Silk Road E-Commerce. China-Europe freight train services registered a total of over 20,000 trips, incorporating 57 cities in 18 European countries, and the ratio of loaded containers reached 94%. The General Plan for New Land-Sea Transit Routes for the Western Region was published.

一是共建“一带一路”扎实推进。第二届“一带一路”国际合作高峰论坛成功举办。累计与138个国家和30个国际组织签署200份共建“一带一路”合作文件。中巴经济走廊等建设进展顺利。雅万高铁、中老铁路、瓜达尔港等重大项目取得积极进展,中俄东线天然气管道投产通气。与法国、英国、日本等14个国家建立第三方市场合作机制。“一带一路”绿色发展国际联盟正式启动,“数字丝绸之路”“丝路电商”建设合作有序推进。中欧班列累计开行突破2万列,通达欧洲18个国家的57个城市,综合重箱率达94%。西部陆海新通道总体规划印发实施。

2) Foreign trade saw stable, higher-quality growth. We carried out the Guidelines on Promoting High-Quality Development of Trade. We successfully hosted the second China International Import Expo. Significant progress was made in the negotiations on the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP). Imports and exports between China and the EU and ASEAN countries, and between China and other BRI countries both grew rapidly. The export of high-value-added products such as the integrated circuits and knowledge-intensive services continued to see rapid growth. We built an additional 24 integrated experimental zones for cross-border e-commerce, and steadily advanced trials of the market procurement trade methods as well as trials for the innovative development of the trade in services. We also raised the quality of development with regard to special customs regulation zones such as integrated bonded areas.

二是外贸发展稳中提质。推进贸易高质量发展的指导意见印发实施。第二届中国国际进口博览会成功举办。区域全面经济伙伴关系协定(RCEP)谈判取得重大进展。对欧盟、东盟以及“一带一路”沿线国家进出口保持较快增长,集成电路等高附加值产品及知识密集型服务出口保持快速增长。新设24个跨境电商综合试验区,市场采购贸易方式试点、服务贸易创新发展试点扎实推进,综合保税区等海关特殊监管区域发展质量进一步提升。

3)The utilization of foreign capital continuously increased. The Foreign Investment Law and the regulations regarding its implementation were enacted. We boosted efforts to attract investment in a broader range of sectors, and to encourage foreign investment in the manufacturing sector and producer services. We supported the relocation of foreign-invested industries to the central and western regions. The two editions of the 2019 negative list for foreign investment, one concerning the whole country and the other concerning pilot free trade zones, were reduced to 40 and 37 items respectively. The restrictions on the shareholding ratio and the scope of operations of foreign-invested financial institutions in China were relaxed, expanding the bidirectional opening up of the financial market. We promoted innovation and upgrading of state-level economic and technological development zones. We improved the management of foreign-debt registration for enterprises, and strengthened efforts to guard against foreign debt risks in key industries. China’s utilized foreign investment totaled US$ 138.1 billion over the year.

三是利用外资水平持续提升。外商投资法及实施条例出台实施。进一步扩大鼓励外商投资范围,鼓励外资投向制造业和生产性服务业,支持中西部地区承接外资产业转移。全国和自贸试验区外资准入负面清单分别缩减至40条、37条。放宽在华外资金融机构持股比例和业务范围限制,扩大金融市场双向开放。推进国家级经济技术开发区创新提升。完善企业外债备案登记管理,加强重点行业外债风险防范。全年实际使用外商直接投资1381亿美元。

4) Positive results were achieved in developing pilot free trade zones. We expanded the Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone by setting up a Lin’gang Special Area, and established an additional six pilot zones including one in Shandong, thus having established pilot free trade zones in all coastal provincial-level regions and in border areas for the first time. We applied 49 institutional innovation practices of free trade zones across the country in 2019, bringing the total number of such practices to 223. The Hainan Free Trade Port saw rapid development.

四是自贸试验区建设取得积极成效。增设上海自贸试验区临港新片区,新设山东等6个自贸试验区,实现沿海省份全覆盖,并首次在沿边地区布局。向全国复制推广自贸试验区49项制度创新成果,累计复制推广223项。海南自由贸易港建设加快推进。

5) Outward investment grew steadily. We implemented the Guide on Compliance Management for Enterprises’ Overseas Operations, as Chinese equipment, technology, standards, and services made steady progress in “going global.” Non-financial outward direct investment reached US$ 110.6 billion in 2019. We expanded channels for cross-border financing of the RMB and advanced the internationalization of the RMB in an orderly manner.

五是境外投资平稳发展。实施企业境外经营合规管理指引,中国装备、技术、标准和服务稳步“走出去”,全年非金融类境外直接投资1106亿美元。人民币跨境融资渠道逐步拓宽,人民币国际化有序推进。

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experimental [iks.peri'mentl]

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adj. 实验(性)的,试验(性)的

 
quality ['kwɔliti]

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n. 品质,特质,才能
adj. 高品质的

 
border ['bɔ:də]

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n. 边界,边境,边缘
vt. 与 ... 接

 
administration [əd.mini'streiʃən]

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n. 行政,管理,行政部门

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global ['gləubəl]

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adj. 全球性的,全世界的,球状的,全局的

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estate [is'teit]

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n. 财产,房地产,状态,遗产

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institutional [.insti'tju:ʃənəl]

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adj. 制度上的,惯例的,机构的

 
stable ['steibl]

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adj. 稳定的,安定的,可靠的
n. 马厩,

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release [ri'li:s]

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n. 释放,让渡,发行
vt. 释放,让与,准

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transfer [træns'fə:]

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n. 迁移,移动,换车
v. 转移,调转,调任

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