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国民经济和社会发展计划2019年执行情况与2020年草案的报告(4)(中英对照)

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8. We worked to safeguard and improve the people’s wellbeing, ensuring that our people lead happier, more satisfying, and more secure lives. Remaining committed to a people-centered philosophy of development, we worked to ensure that basic living needs are met, especially for those most in need, and that the policies for improving living standards are implemented in full.

(八)着力保障和改善民生,人民群众获得感幸福感安全感不断提升。坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,保障人民群众尤其是困难群众的基本生活,让各项惠民举措落到实处。

1) We stepped up efforts to keep employment stable and promote growth in incomes. We implemented the employment-first policy, and issued guidelines on further ensuring stable employment. We provided stronger support for key groups and people having difficulties finding jobs, improved public employment services in a comprehensive manner, and facilitated the free flow of employees so that they have more job opportunities. In 2019, 55.2 billion yuan from unemployment insurance funds was refunded in order to help 1.15 million enterprises maintain stable employment, benefiting 72.9 million employees. A total of 2 billion yuan of upskilling subsidies in 1.26 million payments from the unemployment insurance funds was distributed to insured workers, while over 100 billion yuan from the surplus in unemployment insurance funds was spent on upskilling programs, and the yearly target of providing 15 million training places was surpassed. We also rolled out a system for life-long vocational skills training, and continued to augment the development of public vocational training centers. We used a combination of measures to increase personal incomes, strived to increase the salaries of workers, especially those working on the front lines of production, and carried out oversight and inspections on the resolution of the wage arrears problem. Per capita disposable personal income exceeded 30,000 yuan.

一是稳就业促增收力度加大。落实就业优先政策,出台实施进一步做好稳就业工作意见。强化重点群体和就业困难人员帮扶,全方位完善公共就业服务,拓展劳动者流动就业空间。全年使用失业保险基金向115万户企业发放稳岗返还552亿元,惠及职工7290万人;向126万人次失业保险参保职工发放失业保险技能提升补贴20亿元,从失业保险基金结余中拿出逾1000亿元支持职业技能提升行动,超额完成补贴职业技能培训1500万人次以上的目标任务。深入推行终身职业技能培训制度,职业技能公共实训基地建设持续加强。多措并举促进居民增收,努力增加劳动者特别是一线劳动者劳动报酬,居民人均可支配收入超过3万元。

2) The social security system was further improved. A total of 968 million people are now covered by basic old-age insurance schemes. We raised the centrally-regulated share of enterprise employees’ basic old-age insurance funds from 3% to 3.5%, and steadily increased basic pension benefits for enterprise retirees. We carried out the work to transfer a portion of state capital into social security funds nationwide. We further improved the basic medical insurance and serious disease insurance systems for rural and non-working urban residents, and made solid strides in guaranteeing medical insurance for poor people and in adjusting the catalog of medicines covered by medical insurance. Worker’s compensation benefits were paid out to 1.94 million employees who have suffered work-related injuries and their dependents. We increased unemployment insurance benefits steadily. In 2019, 4.612 million unemployed people received unemployment benefits for varying durations, totaling 1,393 yuan per person per month on average. We made steady progress in establishing a unified system for subsistence allowances in rural and urban areas, improved the dynamic adjustment mechanism for subsistence allowance standards, and ensured that the system for providing assistance and basic necessities to people in extreme poverty was fully implemented. We promoted the renovation of old residential communities in cities and towns, began renovations on 3.16 million units of housing in run-down urban areas, and rapidly developed the housing rental market in large and medium-sized cities.

二是社会保障体系进一步完善。基本养老保险覆盖人数达9.68亿人,企业职工基本养老保险基金中央调剂比例从3%提高到3.5%,退休人员基本养老金稳步提高。划转部分国有资本充实社保基金工作全面推开。城乡居民医疗保险和大病保险制度更趋完善,医疗保障扶贫、医保药品目录调整等工作扎实推进。通过工伤保险为194万工伤职工及供养亲属提供待遇保障。全年有461.2万失业人员领取到不同期限的失业保险金,平均每人每月1393元,保障水平稳步提高。稳步推进低保制度城乡统筹,健全低保标准动态调整机制,全面实施特困人员救助供养制度。推进城镇老旧小区改造,城镇棚户区改造开工316万套,大中城市住房租赁市场加快培育。

3) Significant progress was made in addressing inadequacies in public services, shoring up points of weakness, and enhancing the quality of service. Government budgetary spending on education continued to exceed 4% of GDP. We continued to increase funding for education in poor areas and weak sectors. The retention rate in nine-year compulsory education hit 94.8%, while the gross enrollment ratio for senior secondary education reached 89.5%, and the gross enrollment ratio for higher education exceeded 50%, with the goal of increasing student enrollments in vocational colleges by 1 million being achieved. We launched trials of a national initiative for integrating industry and vocational education of different types at different levels. We launched the Healthy China initiative, advanced trials for the development of regional medical service centers, and promoted trials for centralizing the procurement and use of medicines. We published the Guidelines on Preserving, Innovating, and Developing Traditional Chinese Medicine. We further refined policies for developing elderly care services. We continued to strengthen the protection of the rights and interests of women and children, regulated the establishment and management of childcare and early childhood education agencies, and promoted the development of care services for children under the age of three. We continued to strengthen regulation in key areas such as the food and drug sectors. Access to basic public cultural services became more equitable, and the development of the Great Wall, Grand Canal, and Long March national cultural parks was pushed forward in a coordinated manner. We offered greater support for building public fitness centers. Construction of stadiums and gymnasiums for the 2022 Winter Olympics proceeded in an orderly way. The National Medium- and Long-Term Plan on Population Aging was published. The country’s total population at the end of 2019 reached 1.40005 billion, with a natural population growth rate of 3.34‰.

三是公共服务补短板强弱项提质量深入推进。国家财政性教育经费支出占国内生产总值比例继续超过4%,对困难地区和薄弱环节教育投入力度不断加大,九年义务教育巩固率达94.8%,高中阶段教育毛入学率达89.5%,高等教育毛入学率超过50%,高职院校扩招100万人目标顺利完成,分层分类开展国家产教融合建设试点。健康中国行动启动实施,区域医疗中心建设试点稳步开展,药品集中采购和使用试点积极推进,促进中医药传承创新发展的意见印发实施。推进养老服务发展的政策体系更加完善。妇女儿童权益保障工作不断加强,规范托育机构设置和管理,促进3岁以下婴幼儿照护服务发展。食品、药品等重点领域监管不断加强。基本公共文化服务均等化水平不断提高。长城、大运河、长征国家文化公园建设统筹推进。加大对全民健身中心等项目建设支持力度,冬奥会场馆建设有序推进。国家积极应对人口老龄化中长期规划印发实施。年末总人口达14.0005亿人,人口自然增长率3.34‰。

In assessing economic and social development in 2019, major targets for economic growth, employment, CPI, and the balance of payments, as well as targets concerning innovation, resource conservation, environmental protection, and people’s wellbeing were satisfactorily met. Due to the rapid growth of steel, building materials, non-ferrous metals, chemicals, and the service sector, one of the obligatory targets—energy consumption per unit of GDP saw an actual reduction of only 2.6%, falling short of the projected target of around 3%. However, the total reduction from 2016 to 2019 achieved a completion rate of 87.1% for the target set in the 13th Five-Year Plan period, and thus was in line with the scheduled reduction for this period. Of the anticipatory targets, the value-added of primary industry, total retail sales of consumer goods, general government revenue, and urban per capita disposable income all fell short of expectations. The projected growth in value-added of primary industry was around 3.5%, but the actual increase was only 3.1%. The main reason for this was the sharp decline in the output of pork and some other agricultural products, with a 21.3% reduction in pork output. The expected growth for total retail sales of consumer goods was approximately 9.0%, but actual growth was only 8.0%. This was mainly due to the fact that there was a slowdown in the growth of traditional forms of consumption like automobiles and home appliances. Other new growth areas in consumer spending are still awaiting development. General government revenue was projected to grow by 5.0%, but actually grew by only 3.8%, due to the larger-than-expected tax and fee cuts made to support the development of the real economy. Urban per capita disposable income was set to grow essentially in step with economic growth, but the actual growth rate was 5.0%, which was lower than the 6.1% growth in GDP. This was mainly due to a slowdown in the growth of urban residents’ net incomes from business and property as well as larger price rises compared to the previous year.

从2019年经济社会发展情况看,经济增长、就业、物价、国际收支等主要指标以及创新驱动、资源节约、环境保护、民生保障等领域指标完成情况良好。约束性指标中,受钢铁、建材、有色、化工等行业生产以及服务业保持较快增长等多种因素影响,单位国内生产总值能耗降低指标实际下降2.6%,低于3%左右的计划目标,但该指标2016-2019年的累计降幅已完成“十三五”规划目标任务的87.1%,符合进度要求。预期性指标中,第一产业增加值、社会消费品零售总额、一般公共预算收入和城镇居民人均可支配收入指标的实际运行值与预期值存在一定差距。第一产业增加值预期目标为“增长3.5%左右”,实际增长3.1%,主要原因是猪肉等一些农产品产量出现较大幅度下降,猪肉产量下降21.3%。社会消费品零售总额预期目标为“增长9.0%左右”,实际增长8.0%,主要原因是汽车、家电等传统消费增速放缓,其他消费新增长点尚在培育中。一般公共预算收入预期目标为“增长5.0%”,实际增长3.8%,主要原因是为支持实体经济发展,减税降费规模超过预期。城镇居民人均可支配收入增速预期目标为“与经济增长基本同步”,实际增长5.0%,低于国内生产总值6.1%的增速,主要原因是受城镇居民经营净收入和财产净收入增速有所放缓、物价涨幅高于上年等因素影响。

Esteemed Deputies,

各位代表:

This year, the sudden outbreak of covid-19 has heavily impacted China’s economic and social development. This epidemic is the fastest-spreading, largest in scale, and most challenging public health emergency China has faced since the founding of the People’s Republic. In the face of this serious challenge, General Secretary Xi Jinping has personally taken charge and planned our response. A Central Committee leading group for responding to the epidemic was quickly established and a central guidance team was dispatched to Hubei Province. The role of joint prevention and control mechanism under the State Council was given full play. The health and safety of the people have, right from the beginning, been our top priority in fighting the epidemic. Under the firm leadership of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, all regions and departments conscientiously implemented the decisions and plans of the Party Central Committee and the State Council, and the whole country was united as one and ready to assist those in need. In accordance with the general requirement to stay confident, come together in solidarity, adopt a science-based approach, and take targeted measures, China quickly declared an all-out people’s war against the epidemic.

今年以来,突如其来的新冠肺炎疫情对我国经济社会发展带来巨大冲击。这次疫情是新中国成立以来我国遭遇的传播速度最快、感染范围最广、防控难度最大的公共卫生事件。面对疫情带来的严峻考验,习近平总书记亲自指挥、亲自部署,迅速成立中央应对疫情工作领导小组,向湖北派出中央指导组,充分发挥国务院联防联控机制作用,始终把人民群众生命安全和身体健康放在第一位。在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,各地区、各部门认真贯彻党中央、国务院决策部署,全国上下众志成城、守望相助,按照坚定信心、同舟共济、科学防治、精准施策的总要求,迅速打响了疫情防控的人民战争、总体战、阻击战。

An all-out effort was made to control the epidemic and treat patients. The efforts of the entire nation were marshaled in support of Wuhan and the rest of Hubei, the country’s main battleground: more than 40,000 medical personnel were sent to help; specialized hospitals like Huoshenshan and Leishenshan and temporary hospitals for centralized treatment were completed with extraordinary speed; and vigorous efforts were made to raise the hospital admission and cure rates and bring down the infection and mortality rates. A joint mechanism and an all-of-society framework for prevention and control were set up. One after another, provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities activated level-one responses to this major public health emergency. Officials were dispatched to communities to ensure effective epidemic control there, while social organizations of all kinds, specialized social workers, and volunteers received the guidance they required to provide epidemic control and social services in accordance with law and in an orderly manner. We worked solidly to ensure the adequate supply of medical materials and stabilize the supply and prices of daily necessities. We quickly ramped up the production of facemasks and other medical protective materials and medical equipment, and added more hospital beds, thereby basically meeting epidemic control needs. We did everything possible to ensure the supply and stable prices of grain, cooking oil, and other foods such as meat, eggs, vegetables, and milk. With the intensification of scientific research into epidemic prevention and control, rapid testing kits were quickly developed and employed on a wide-scale basis. Both traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine were utilized and patients, experts and resources were concentrated in designated facilities to provide treatment, in an attempt to save as many lives as possible. Responding to the rapid spread of the epidemic around the world and guarding against imported risks, the Chinese government provided care and support for overseas Chinese nationals and arranged temporary flights to bring back to China in an orderly fashion those individuals facing difficulties abroad. In promoting international epidemic control cooperation, China strengthened cooperation with the World Health Organization (WHO), and has provided as much assistance as it can to countries and regions hit by the epidemic.

全力以赴做好疫情防控救治工作。举全国之力支援湖北省、武汉市主战场,组织4万多名医护人员驰援,迅速建成火神山、雷神山等集中收治医院和方舱医院,着力提高收治率和治愈率、降低感染率和病亡率。开展联防联控和群防群控,各省(区、市)相继启动重大突发卫生事件一级响应,组织干部力量下沉抓好社区防控,引导各类社会组织、专业社会工作者和志愿服务力量依法有序参与疫情防控和社会服务。扎实做好医疗物资保障和生活必需品保供稳价工作,快速实现口罩等医疗防护物资、医疗救治设备、医治床位从严重短缺到基本满足疫情防控需要;千方百计保障粮油与肉禽蛋菜奶等食品的市场供应和价格基本稳定。强化疫情防控科技攻关,短时间内研发快速检测试剂并大规模应用,坚持中西医结合,坚持“四集中”,尽最大可能挽救更多患者生命。针对境外疫情扩散蔓延,加强输入性风险防控,做好对境外我国公民关心关爱,开辟临时航线有序接回我国在外困难人员,积极推进疫情防控国际合作,加强与世界卫生组织合作,向出现疫情扩散的国家和地区提供力所能及的帮助。

Coordinated efforts were made to curb the spread of the epidemic and promote economic and social development. Resumption of business and production was carried out in an orderly manner in different regions according to local conditions. With the precondition of the epidemic under effective control, active assistance was provided to enterprises to help them solve the problems they faced with regard to labor, logistics, funding, and the supply of raw materials and spare parts. Every effort was made to ensure the operation of urban and rural roads and public transportation services, and emergency assistance was provided to micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises and to self-employed individuals. These measures have helped enterprises of all sizes both up- and down-stream resume business and production in a coordinated manner. By the end of April, 99.4% of large industrial enterprises had resumed production, and 94.3% of their employees had returned to work. We strengthened online approval of investment projects, ensured support for these projects in terms of labor, land use, funding, energy use, and environmental impact assessment, and acted promptly to help solve the problems major projects faced in resuming construction. A range of policies were rolled out in a timely manner to offset the impact of the epidemic. In addition to the 1.29 trillion yuan of local government special bonds to be issued in 2020 that the central government had already approved in advance last year, a further 1 trillion yuan was approved. In scaling up tax and fee cuts, we reduced or exempted VAT on small-scale taxpayers on a time-limited basis, reduced or waived enterprises’ social insurance premiums and allowed them to delay their contributions to the housing provident fund at the current stage, and lowered both power and gas costs for enterprises. These measures resulted in more than 700 billion yuan of tax and fee reductions in the first quarter of 2020. We made three general and targeted cuts to required reserve ratios, increased quotas for relending and rediscounts by 1.8 trillion yuan, and strengthened inclusive financial support for micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises. Delayed repayment was allowed for the loans of micro, small, and medium-sized businesses. We introduced policies and measures to expand and upgrade consumption and to boost a robust domestic market, and further extended the policies on purchase subsidies and purchase tax exemption for new-energy vehicles. We took prompt steps to explain the situation and our policies, actively responded to public concerns, and maintained the confidence of market entities. Agricultural production proceeded smoothly in the spring. With sufficient production and supply of seeds, chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and agricultural machinery, plowing and sowing progressed smoothly. The area that will be sown with early rice is predicted to total 4.73 million hectares and the winter wheat and winter canola crops are growing well. We worked hard to resolve inadequate supply of feed required for livestock and aquaculture farming and difficulties faced in the sale of some agricultural products that were having difficulties finding buyers. Concerted efforts were made in poverty reduction. We moved quickly to ensure the resumption or start of work on poverty reduction projects, such as those to develop infrastructure in resettlement areas for people relocated from inhospitable areas, poverty-reduction workshops, projects to ensure safe drinking water in rural areas, and work-relief programs. We made the most of public-welfare posts in creating jobs, helped people in poverty find jobs in their hometowns or nearby areas, gave priority to assisting workers struggling with poverty in returning to their jobs in cities or finding jobs in other places, and quickly enacted measures to provide support and assistance for those who sink back or fall into poverty due to the epidemic. Efforts were redoubled to help stabilize employment and ensure people’s basic living needs were met. We made full use of the unemployment insurance funds to support enterprises in keeping employment stable. Recruitment into SOEs, enrollment of graduate students, admission of junior college graduates into undergraduate education, and enlistment of undergraduates into the military were scaled up. Home-to-work transportation services were provided to help rural migrant workers return to their posts, and schools and colleges were organized to carry out online teaching throughout the country, both in an orderly fashion. In providing assistance to people facing financial difficulties due to the epidemic, we continued the practice of increasing social security assistance and benefit payments in step with price rises, and increased benefits and expanded assistance coverage for the current period.

统筹推进疫情防控和经济社会发展工作。分区分级有序推动复工复产复市复业。在有效防控疫情的前提下,积极帮助解决企业用工、物流、资金和原材料、零部件供应问题,全力保障城乡道路、公共交通畅通,加强对中小微企业和个体工商户的应急纾困服务,推动产业链上下游、大中小企业协同复工复产。截至4月底,规模以上工业企业复工率、员工到岗率分别达到99.4%和94.3%。加强投资项目远程审批服务,做好用工、土地、资金、用能、环评等方面保障,及时帮助解决重大项目复工遇到的堵点难点问题。及时推出一系列对冲纾困政策。在去年已提前下达2020年地方政府专项债券额度1.29万亿元的基础上,进一步增加提前下达限额1万亿元。加大减税降费力度,阶段性减免小规模纳税人增值税,阶段性减免企业社保费、缓缴住房公积金,降低企业用电用气成本等,一季度减税降费规模超过7000亿元。实施3次普遍降准、定向降准,新增1.8万亿元再贷款再贴现额度,进一步强化对中小微企业的普惠性金融支持措施。对中小微企业贷款实施延期还本付息。出台促进消费扩容提质加快形成强大国内市场的政策措施,延长新能源汽车购置补贴和免征车辆购置税政策年限。同时,及时解读形势和政策,积极回应社会关切,稳定市场主体发展信心。抓好春季农业生产。保障种子、化肥、农药、农机等生产供应,春耕春播进展顺利,早稻播种面积预计达7100万亩,冬小麦、冬油菜长势良好,着力解决畜牧水产养殖饲料供应和部分农产品滞销等困难。凝心聚力推进脱贫攻坚。加快推进易地扶贫搬迁安置区配套设施、扶贫车间、农村饮水安全、以工代赈等脱贫攻坚项目开工复工,积极挖掘公益岗位潜力,促进贫困人口就地就近就业,优先组织贫困劳动力返城返岗和外出务工,对因疫情返贫致贫人员及时落实帮扶措施。强化保居民就业和民生兜底。充分发挥失业保险基金援企稳岗作用,扩大国有企业招收、硕士研究生招生、专升本、大学生应征入伍数量规模,通过“点对点”运输等方式引导农民工有序返岗复工。组织全国大中小学有序开展线上教学。对受疫情影响的困难群众实施救助帮扶,及时启动社会救助和保障标准与物价上涨挂钩联动机制,阶段性提高补贴标准、扩大覆盖范围。

Through the arduous efforts of the entire Party and the whole nation, our country has secured a decisive victory in the battle to protect Wuhan and Hubei Province, achieved a major strategic result in containing the epidemic, and made positive progress in coordinating continued prevention and control efforts with economic and social activities. These achievements once again fully demonstrate the strong vitality and great strengths of the CPC’s leadership, of our system of socialism, and of our state governance system, which will enable us to surmount any difficulty and make a significant contribution to human civilization and progress.

经过全党全国上下艰苦卓绝的努力,武汉保卫战、湖北保卫战取得决定性成果,疫情防控阻击战取得重大战略成果,统筹推进疫情防控和经济社会发展工作取得积极成效。实践再次证明,中国共产党领导和我国社会主义制度、我国国家治理体系具有强大生命力和显著优越性,能够战胜任何艰难险阻,能够为人类文明进步作出重大贡献。

At the same time, we must be keenly aware that although the epidemic has been brought under effective control at home, it is still spreading rapidly in other countries. The world economy is heading toward a serious recession, and instabilities and uncertainties are clearly increasing, while China has major challenges to address in pursuing economic development. Internationally, covid-19 is severely impacting the global industrial and supply chains, while the international financial market is experiencing growing volatility. Unilateralism and protectionism are increasing, international economic and trade rules are being challenged, and geopolitical risks remain relatively high. All this will increase external risks to China’s development. Domestically, China is under great pressure in preventing covid-19 from entering from other countries and has new challenges to overcome before its economy and industrial and supply chains can recover. First, decline in domestic and foreign demand has led to impeded flows in the economy. Consumption of non-necessities was squeezed due to the impact of the epidemic, and the consumption of automobiles and other big-ticket items fell sharply. In short, growth in consumer spending has been checked. Businesses are experiencing growing difficulties in operations and receiving fewer orders. Added to this are the limitations on investments by local governments, and the result is great difficulty in increasing investment. Due to the sluggish foreign demand and the broken global supply chains, we are under increasing pressure to ensure stable foreign trade and stable foreign investment. Second, the situation is challenging for some enterprises and industries. The value-added of corporate profits dropped sharply. Consumer services were worst-affected. Many micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises are experiencing breaks in their capital chains and have therefore had to suspend or shut down production, and it is likely that more such enterprises in some localities and industries will have no choice but to declare bankruptcy. Third, there are pronounced weaknesses in our public health and emergency response systems. Our management institutions for disease prevention and control need to be further improved. Our capacity for the monitoring over, early warning of, and response to new infectious diseases needs to be enhanced. Public health infrastructure in counties, towns, and villages needs to be strengthened. Our national reserve system for important supplies also needs to be further improved. Fourth, our capacity for scientific and technological innovation is still not robust. Our R&D spending falls short of what is required to turn China into a country of innovators, while deep-seated institutional barriers to scientific and technological innovation have yet to be removed, and our country still has to depend on others for core technologies in key fields. Fifth, reforms in key sectors need to be strengthened. Mechanisms still need to be improved so that factors of production are priced by the market. Continued efforts will be made to overcome challenges with regard to key reforms such as those involving SOEs and state-owned assets, the fiscal, tax, and financial systems, the business environment, the private sector, the expansion of domestic demand, and integrated urban-rural development. Sixth, risks are accumulating in some key sectors. Externally-generated risks are on the rise, credit default risks may increase, and risks for some small and medium-sized financial institutions are relatively high. Government at all levels face higher prevention and control expenditures and smaller tax revenues due to the covid-19 outbreak, and some county-level governments are even facing difficulties in their financial operations. Seventh, there are prominent problems that need to be addressed to ensure people’s wellbeing. It has become more challenging to stabilize employment, and we are facing mounting pressure to generate employment for college graduates and other key groups and increasing difficulties with regard to creating jobs for unemployed people in some places. It has also become more difficult to increase incomes, and some workers find their salary incomes decreasing. We face a formidable task in lifting those still living below the poverty line out of poverty. Areas of extreme poverty face new challenges in ensuring compulsory education, basic medical services, and safe housing for residents living below the poverty line. There are also weak areas and deficiencies to address in ecological conservation and environmental governance. Public service systems, such as those for old-age services, childcare, and education, fall short of the expectations of the general public. In addition, there are still areas of improvement in our work. For instance, our policies on epidemic control need to be better coordinated, with some still functioning in a fragmented or isolated manner. Some policies need to be better implemented. Our methods of governance and capacity in some areas need to be improved and strengthened. Pointless formalities and bureaucratism still exist in the performance of our work.

同时,我们也清醒认识到,尽管我国疫情得到有效控制,但境外疫情快速扩散蔓延,世界经济出现严重衰退,不确定不稳定因素显著增多,我国经济运行面临巨大挑战。从国际看,疫情对全球产业链供应链形成较大冲击,国际金融市场剧烈震荡,单边主义、贸易保护主义抬头,国际经贸规则面临挑战,地缘政治风险仍然较高,这些都会加大我国发展的外部风险。从国内看,境外疫情输入压力加大,经济发展特别是产业链供应链恢复面临新的挑战。一是内外需求下降导致经济循环受阻。居民非必需品消费等因疫情冲击受到严重抑制,汽车等大宗商品消费大幅下滑,消费增长受到制约。由于企业经营困难加大、订单减少,加之地方投资能力受限,投资增长面临较大困难。受外需持续疲弱和全球供应链中断影响,稳外贸稳外资压力明显加大。二是行业企业运行困难较多。企业利润大幅下降,特别是生活性服务业受疫情冲击最大,不少中小微企业出现资金链断裂、停产关闭等情况,存在局部地区、部分行业中小微企业破产增多的可能。三是公共卫生和应急体系短板凸显。疾病预防控制管理体系不完善,新发传染病监测预警和应对能力不足,县镇村公共卫生基础设施相对薄弱,重要物资国家储备体系尚不健全。四是科技创新能力短板仍较突出。研发投入强度与建设创新型国家的要求相比尚需提高,有利于科技创新的深层次制度障碍还没有破除,关键核心技术受制于人的状况尚未根本改观。五是重点领域改革仍需加力。由市场决定要素价格机制仍有待健全。需持续在国企国资、财税金融、营商环境、民营经济、扩大内需、城乡融合等重点改革领域攻坚克难。六是重点领域风险有所集聚。外部输入性风险上升,信用违约风险可能加大,部分中小金融机构风险较高。受疫情影响,各级财政防控支出增加、税收收入减少,一些地方基层财政运转困难。七是社会民生领域面临较大挑战。稳岗稳就业难度加大,高校毕业生等重点群体就业压力明显攀升,一些地方失业再就业难度加大。部分劳动者工资收入降低,居民增收难度加大。剩余贫困人口脱贫任务艰巨,深度贫困地区实现“三保障”面临不少新的挑战。生态环境治理仍然存在短板和薄弱环节。养老、托育、教育等公共服务体系与人民群众期待相比还存在明显差距。同时,我们在工作中也还存在一些不足,比如,疫情防控政策协调协同还不够,有的政策存在碎片化、条块化问题,有的政策措施落实还不够到位,有的领域治理手段和治理能力有待优化和加强,工作中还存在形式主义、官僚主义等问题。

While noting these difficulties and challenges, we must recognize that the shocks and impacts of covid-19 on China are short-term and manageable, and that the fundamentals of the Chinese economy, with its strong potential and great resilience, remain favorable for long-term growth. With challenges also come opportunities, and challenges can turn into opportunities if dealt with well. Under the firm leadership of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, with the manifest strengths of the system of socialism with Chinese characteristics, along with our strong ability to mobilize all sectors of society, China’s formidable comprehensive strength, and the concerted efforts of the Party, the military, and the people of all our ethnic groups, we will be able to defeat this epidemic, and we are also certain to maintain good momentum in our country’s economic and social development, realize the goal of eradicating poverty, and achieve moderate prosperity.

在看到困难和挑战的同时,我们更要看到,疫情的冲击和影响都是阶段性的、总体可控的,改变不了我国发展潜力大、韧性强、经济长期向好的基本面。危与机同生并存,克服了危即是机。在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,有中国特色社会主义制度的显著优势,有强大的动员能力和雄厚的综合实力,有全党全军全国各族人民的团结奋斗,我们一定能够战胜这场疫情,也一定能够保持我国经济社会良好发展势头,确保完成决战决胜脱贫攻坚的目标任务,全面建成小康社会。

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expand [iks'pænd]

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v. 增加,详述,扩展,使 ... 膨胀,
v

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resolution [.rezə'lu:ʃən]

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n. 决心,决定,坚决,决议,解决,分辨率

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innovation [.inəu'veiʃən]

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n. 创新,革新

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isolated ['aisəleitid]

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adj. 分离的,孤立的

 
fiscal ['fiskəl]

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adj. 财政的,国库的

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concerted [kən'sə:tid]

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adj. 商议好的,协定的,一致的 动词concert的

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keenly

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catalog ['kætəlɔ:g]

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n. 目录,大学概况手册,商品型录
vt. 做

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previous ['pri:vjəs]

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