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《全面建成小康社会:中国人权事业发展的光辉篇章》白皮书(13)(中英对照)

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4. Strengthening Guarantee of the Rights of People with Disabilities

4.残疾人权益保障更加有力

Improving social security. China has established a subsidy system to provide for the living expenses of disabled people in need and to pay the nursing costs of people with severe disabilities. By 2020, the system had benefitted 12.1 million poor disabled people and 14.7 million with severe disabilities in need of nursing. A total of 27 million people with disabilities were covered in old-age insurance schemes in both urban and rural areas, with 11.4 million receiving pensions. 10.8 million people with disabilities received urban or rural subsistence allowances, including 6.4 million with severe disabilities. The government paid basic old-age insurance premiums for 96.7 percent of the 6.8 million people with severe disabilities. The government also fully or partly paid the premiums for 3 million people with mild or moderate disabilities.

残疾人社会保障体系不断完善。全面建立困难残疾人生活补贴和重度残疾人护理补贴制度。截至2020年,享受困难残疾人生活补贴人数有1212.6万人,享受重度残疾人护理补贴人数有1473.8万人。截至2020年,共有2699.2万残疾人参加城乡居民社会养老保险,其中1140.5万残疾人领取养老金;1076.8万残疾人获得城乡最低生活保障,其中重度残疾人641.4万人;680.1万重度残疾人中政府代缴养老保险费比例达到96.7%;另有303.7万非重度残疾人享受全额或部分代缴养老保险费的优惠政策。

Making rehabilitation universally available. The government has included rehabilitation services for the disabled in plans for basic public services, and carried out targeted rehabilitation programs to help those in need. It has established a rehabilitation assistance mechanism for disabled children, developed community rehabilitation services for people with mental illnesses, and boosted the industry of rehabilitation assistive devices. Basic rehabilitation services and products are provided to disabled children and people with certified disabilities.

残疾人康复服务普惠可及。残疾人康复服务纳入基本公共服务规划,建立残疾儿童康复救助制度,实施残疾人精准康复服务行动,发展精神障碍社区康复服务,推进康复辅助器具产业发展,为残疾儿童和持证残疾人提供基本康复服务和产品。

In 2020, 10.8 million disabled children and people with certified disabilities received basic rehabilitation services, and 2.4 million people with disabilities benefited from adaption services for assistive devices. About 676,000 disabled children have benefited from a rehabilitation assistance mechanism that was initiated in 2018.

2020年,1077.7万名残疾儿童及持证残疾人得到基本康复服务,242.6万名残疾人得到各类辅助器具适配服务。自2018年建立实施残疾儿童康复救助制度以来,全国接受康复救助的残疾儿童达67.6万人次。残疾预防工作取得积极成效。

Efforts to prevent disability have paid off. In 2017, the State Council approved the establishment of August 25 as the Disability Prevention Day, to promote public awareness of disability prevention. The National Disability Prevention Action Plan (2016-2020) laid out effective measures for controlling the occurrence of birth defects and disabilities caused by development disorders, preventing disabilities caused by illnesses, reducing injuries that cause disabilities, and improving rehabilitation services. Substantial progress has been made in these four areas, and the main targets have been reached.

2017年国务院批准将每年8月25日设立为“残疾预防日”,提高公众残疾预防意识。制定发布《国家残疾预防行动计划(2016-2020年)》,有效控制出生缺陷和发育障碍致残、着力防控疾病致残、努力减少伤害致残和显著改善康复服务等四项行动取得积极进展,主要任务目标基本实现。

Creating better access to education. People with disabilities have an equal right to education that is guaranteed through special education and inclusive education. In 2020, there were 2,244 special education schools with 66,200 full-time teachers and 880,800 students, an increase of 512,700 students or 139 percent from 2013. Continued efforts have also been made to provide the necessary support for students with disabilities to go to regular schools, and the number of students with disabilities attending regular schools has seen a steady increase, from 191,000 in 2013 to 435,800 in 2020, an increase of 128 percent. Over the past decade, about 50 percent of students with disabilities have been able to study at regular schools. Free 12-year education from primary school to senior high school has been ensured for disabled students from poor families.

残疾人受教育水平稳步提高。着力办好特殊教育,大力发展融合教育,努力保障残疾人享有平等受教育权。2020年全国共有特殊教育学校2244所,专任教师6.62万人,在校学生88.08万人,比2013年增加51.27万人,增长139.3%。不断完善随班就读支持保障体系,在普通学校随班就读的残疾学生规模不断扩大,由2013年的19.1万人增加到2020年的43.58万人,增长128.2%。近10年来,残疾学生在普通学校就读的比例均接近或超过50%。全国实现了家庭经济困难残疾学生从小学到高中阶段教育的12年免费教育。

Guaranteeing the right to work. China promotes the employment of people with disabilities by improving relevant laws and regulations, expanding employment channels, and improving services. In 2020, there were 2,811 employment service agencies and 478 vocational training centers for people with disabilities, and the number of employed people with certified disabilities reached 8.6 million.

残疾人就业权利得到更好保障。中国通过完善法律法规、拓展就业渠道、完善服务体系,促进残疾人就业权利的实现。截至2020年,全国共有残疾人就业服务机构2811家,国家级残疾人职业培训基地478家,城乡持证残疾人就业人数855.2万人。

Efforts have been made to help people with disabilities emerge from poverty. Between 2015 and 2020, China built 4,581 poverty alleviation centers for people with disabilities, helping 409,000 disabled people find jobs and increase income. The per capita net income of registered poor household with disabled members grew from RMB2,776 in 2015 to RMB8,726 in 2019.

积极开展残疾人扶贫。2015年至2020年,全国共建立4581个残疾人扶贫基地,扶持近40.9万残疾人就业增收;建档立卡贫困残疾人家庭人均纯收入由2015年的2776.2元增长到2019年的8726.2元。

Building an accessible environment. The Regulations on the Building of an Accessible Environment have come into effect. As of 2020, 1,753 cities and counties had initiated efforts to improve accessibility and remove barriers, and 469 cities, counties, towns, and villages had been recognized by the state as barrier-free. Among comprehensive service facilities in villages or communities across the country, 81 percent of entrances and exits, 56.6 percent of service counters and 38.7 percent of restrooms had been upgraded for accessibility. Between 2016 and 2020, home adaptation was carried out for 650,000 poor families with severely disabled members. As of 2019, there were 2,341 comprehensive service facilities, 1,006 rehabilitation facilities, and 887 care facilities for people with disabilities; at the provincial level, 25 radio programs and 32 sign language television programs serviced people with disabilities; and there were 1,174 reading rooms with Braille and audio books.

残疾人无障碍环境建设大力推进。制定实施《无障碍环境建设条例》。截至2020年,1753个市、县开展无障碍建设,全国累计创建469个无障碍市县村镇。全国村(社区)综合服务设施中有81.05%的出入口、56.58%的服务柜台、38.66%的厕所进行了无障碍建设和改造。2016年至2020年,全国共有65万贫困重度残疾人家庭得到了无障碍改造。截至2019年,全国已建成各级残疾人综合服务设施2341个,康复设施1006个,托养服务设施887个;共有省级残疾人专题广播节目25个、电视手语栏目32个;设立盲文及盲文有声读物阅览室1174个。

A variety of measures have been taken to promote information accessibility, increasing the supply of accessible terminal products, and applying accessible products and technologies for better services. By expanding the channels for people with disabilities to engage in an information society, and facilitating the application of information technology to build an accessible environment, China is trying hard to eliminate the digital divide and create a more inclusive society.

全面推进信息无障碍建设,增强信息无障碍终端产品供给,推进无障碍产品和服务技术推广应用,拓宽残疾人参与信息社会的渠道,推动信息化与无障碍环境的深度融合,消除“数字鸿沟”,助力社会包容性发展。

Moderate prosperity covers every aspect. The Chinese government gives top priority to ensuring people's wellbeing, and spares no effort in addressing concerns of the people. Significant progress has been made in ensuring access to childcare, education, employment, housing, medical services, elderly care, and social assistance. Moderate prosperity in all respects benefits all Chinese people and enables them to enjoy greater human rights than ever before.

全面小康,贵在全面。中国始终把人民安危冷暖、安居乐业放在首位,全力解决好人民群众关心的问题,在幼有所育、学有所教、劳有所得、病有所医、老有所养、住有所居、弱有所扶上取得显著进展。全面建成小康社会惠益了全体人民,使中国人民享有了比任何时候都更为充分的人权。

Conclusion

结束语

Under the CPC's leadership, the Chinese people have achieved moderate prosperity in all respects, a historic undertaking completed through consistent hard work.

全面建成小康社会,是全体中国人民在中国共产党领导下拼搏奋斗的一项伟大壮举。

In this process, China has respected and protected human rights within the institutional framework of Chinese socialism under CPC leadership: applying the principle of universality of human rights in China's context; taking a people-centered approach to human rights; protecting the rights to subsistence and development as the primary task; promoting human rights through development; with a happy life as the ultimate goal; providing legal guarantee for the protection of human rights; promoting comprehensive progress in human rights; building a global community of shared future.

全面建成小康社会的伟大实践,积累了尊重和保障人权的宝贵经验。这就是在中国共产党的领导下,在中国特色社会主义制度中,坚持人权的普遍性与中国国情相结合,坚持以人民为中心的人权理念,坚持生存权发展权是首要的基本人权,坚持以发展促人权,坚持人民幸福生活是最大的人权,坚持人权法治保障,坚持促进人权事业全面发展,推动构建人类命运共同体。

China's population is about one fifth of the world's total. China's success in realizing moderate prosperity is a milestone in the history of global human rights. China's approach and experience have provided a distinctive path forward for human progress.

中国人口占世界总人口的近五分之一。中国全面建成小康社会,是世界人权事业发展史上的重要里程碑。中国在全面建成小康社会的伟大进程中,所创造的尊重和保障人权的成功做法和经验,为增进人类福祉贡献了中国智慧、提供了中国方案。

There is no end to improving human rights. Moderate prosperity is a new starting point on China's quest for human rights. To fully build China into a modern socialist country, the CPC will practice the new development philosophy, build a new development dynamic, and pursue high-quality development, to ensure the Chinese people live a happier life and enjoy more extensive human rights. As a commitment to the world, China will make a greater contribution to global human rights.

人权保障没有最好,只有更好。全面建成小康社会,奠定了中国人权发展进步的新起点。在全面建设社会主义现代化国家新征程中,中国共产党将把握新发展阶段,贯彻新发展理念,构建新发展格局,推动高质量发展,继续带领全体人民为享有更加幸福安康的生活和更高水平的人权而奋斗。中国必将为世界人权事业发展作出新的更大贡献。

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application [.æpli'keiʃən]

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n. 应用; 申请; 专心
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