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你问我答学英语(MP3+双语字幕)第105期:定语从句当中的that和which

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Hello, I am Vaibhav. I am calling from India, and my question is: When do we use 'which' and when do we use 'that'?

你好,我是Vaibhav。我是从印度打来的,我的问题是:我们什么时候要用'which',什么时候要用'that'呢?
What are the constraints, what are the conditions under which we use these two words?
我们在使用这两个单词时,有什么限制和条件呢?
OK - that's a good question.
好的,这是一个好问题。
I'm assuming that you mean in what we call relative clauses since this is where the confusion usually occurs.
我想你指的是我们所说的定语从句中的情况,因为这种困惑通常发生在其中。
Now, in a relative clause, we can use 'who' or 'whom' for people, and 'which' for things.
在定语从句中,我们可以使用'who'或者'whom'来指代人,而用'which'来指代事物。
So we can say: 'the man who came to dinner', or 'the bridge which crosses the Ganges up river from here'.
因此我们可以这么说:'来吃晚餐的那个男人'或者'从这里横跨恒河的桥'
So: 'the man who came to dinner', 'the bridge which crosses the Ganges'.
就是这样:'the man who came to dinner'、'the bridge which crosses the Ganges'。
Now, 'that' is less formal, and it can be used for both people and things in some relative clauses.
'that'相对来说不太正式,在一些定语从句中,它可以用于指代人和事物。
So I could say, less formally: 'the man that came to dinner', 'the bridge that crosses the Ganges'.
因此我可以不太正式的说:'the man that came to dinner'、'the bridge that crosses the Ganges'。

定语从句当中的that和which

But, 'that' can only be used in what we call identifying relative clauses

但是,'that'只能用于我们所说的限制性定语从句当中,
and those are clauses where you need the information to understand what you're talking about.
也就是说在从句的位置,你需要有信息来让你明白你在说什么。
Those were both identifying relative clauses, but if I said: 'Mr Swan, who came to dinner',
上面的两句话都是限制性定语从句,但是如果我说,'Swan先生,来吃晚饭。'
I don't need 'who came to dinner' to define Mr Swan, I've already identified him.
那么我就不需要用'who came to dinner'来明确说明Swan先生,因为我已经点出他了。
So, you can not use 'that' in that sentence,
所以,刚才这个句子中,你不能使用'that'
and you can not use 'that' if you are talking about: 'Waterloo Bridge, which crosses the Thames up river from here'.
还有,当你这么说的时候:'Waterloo Bridge, which crosses the Thames up river from here',你也不能用that。
So, that's when you use 'which' for identifying relative clauses and for non-identifying relative clauses,
因此,这就是你什么时候要在限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句中使用'which'的情况,
but you can only use 'that' informally for identifying relative clauses. Is that clear?
而你只能在限制性定语从句中非正式的使用'that'。清楚了吗?
Can we take certain examples for this, like, there is a group of presidents who are meeting in the conference:
我们能举一些特定的例子吗,比如说,有好几位总统正在会谈,
'the president who is from India', 'the president which is from India', 'the president that is from India' - which one is correct?
'the president who is from India'、'the president which is from India'和'the president that is from India',这三种哪一个是正确的?
OK - you can't use 'which' for a president, because a president is a person. You can use 'who' or 'that'.
好的,你不能用'which'指代一名总统,因为总统是一个人。你可以用'who'或者'that'。
If there are several presidents and you want to talk about 'the president that is coming there', instead of 'the president that's not coming there'.
如果这里有好几位总统,你要谈论的是'来到这里那位总统',而不是'没来这里的总统'。
But if by saying 'the president' it's clear that you mean only one person, then you can not use 'that'.
但是如果说了'the president',那么很明显你指的仅仅是一位总统,那么你就不能使用'that'。
You have to say 'who': 'the president who is coming to the conference'.
你必须要说'who':也就是'the president who is coming to the conference'。
OK. That's clear. That's a great question. Thank you very much.
好的,这下清楚了。这是一个很棒的问题。非常感谢。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
conference ['kɔnfərəns]

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n. 会议,会谈,讨论会,协商会

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identified

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adj. 被识别的;经鉴定的;被认同者 v. 鉴定(id

 
understand [.ʌndə'stænd]

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vt. 理解,懂,听说,获悉,将 ... 理解为,认为<

 
confusion [kən'fju:ʒən]

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n. 混乱,混淆,不确定状态

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clause [klɔ:z]

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n. 条款,款项,[语]从句,分句

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certain ['sə:tn]

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adj. 确定的,必然的,特定的
pron.

 
define [di'fain]

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v. 定义,解释,限定,规定

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