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经济学人:缅甸努力为外国投资做好准备

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Business

商业报道
Myanmar gets ready for business
缅甸努力为外国投资做好准备
Opening soon
正在开放
Big opportunities and big problems for firms in Myanmar
对于投资缅甸的企业来说,巨大的机遇与巨大的风险并存
IT DOESN'T happen every day that a country of 60m people in the most dynamic region of the world is suddenly open for business,
在世界上最有活力的地区内,具有六千万人口的国家一夜之间就放开了商业上的限制,这种事儿可不常见。
argues Hans Vriens, a consultant in Singapore.
新加坡国顾问汉森威尔森如此说道。
He is describing the prospects in Myanmar, as the once isolated country moves from a military dictatorship to something less ghastly.
他所描述的正是缅甸国内发生的变化,一个曾经封闭的国家从军官独裁之恐怖局势中解脱出来的过程。
Rich in teak, minerals, oil, gas and much else, half a century ago Myanmar was one of the more prosperous countries in the region.
凭借着丰富的柚树、石油、天然气和其他资源,缅甸半个世纪以前曾是东南亚区域内相对富有的国家之一。
Decades of state socialism, oppression and sanctions put paid to that.
但是国内数十年不成功的社会主义化进程,以及来做国外的压迫、制裁却使得这些优势消耗殆尽。
But now Myanmar seems to be rejoining the real world. The army has relaxed its grip somewhat,
不过现在,缅甸看起来又要重新回到世界舞台了。
and the government is angling for foreign investment. Will the economy regain its former lustre?
军方已一定程度上放松了对国家的控制,政府也尽力争取国外的投资。那么,缅甸国的经济能否重新恢复往日的光彩呢?
Myanmar's reforms may win diplomatic rewards.
缅甸的改革也许可以赢来外交上的回报。

America and the European Union imposed sweeping economic sanctions in the 1990s to punish the regime for stealing elections and jailing opponents.

美国和欧盟曾在20世纪90年代向缅甸实行全面的经济制裁以对其无视选民的选举权利并且关押反对派人士的行为做出惩罚;
These may be lifted.
缅甸改革以后,这些制裁都有可能被取消,
That would allow foreign firms, and particularly Western ones, to pour in.
进而海外的尤其是来自西方国家的企业,将大量进入缅甸市场。
Some countries are moving already.
有一些国家已经开始行动。
America is allowing IMF and World Bank teams to visit the country in part to help the government modernise its sclerotic financial system.
现在美国正允许世界货币基金组织以及世界银行的工作组在一些领域内访问缅甸以帮助该国政府扭转僵化的金融系统、实现现代化。
The EU has abolished visa restrictions on leading government members and is expected to announce further relaxations in April.
欧盟则已经针对主要的政府成员解除了签证限制,并有预测指出四月份,更多的限制会被放宽。
Western firms are excited by the country's big population, abundant natural resources and palpable demand for modern products and services.
缅甸国的巨大人口,丰富的自然资源以及对现代化产品和服务的明确需求都让西方企业激动不已。
Myanmar's clocks stopped some time in the early 1960s, after the generals took over, so its citizens are hungry for just about everything.
20世纪60年代军官独占统治权后,缅甸的社会曾经一度停止发展,因而现在,缅甸人民对即将到来的一切都如饥似渴。
Few people own cars and the gleaming malls and supermarkets that infest much of Asia are largely absent.
目前缅甸国内几乎无人拥有汽车,大多数亚洲国家内都成批出现的豪华购物中心或豪华超市也都在缅甸国内不见踪影。
Mr Vriens says investors see opportunities everywhere, from finance to hotels to food processing.
威尔森先生说投资者在金融,酒店乃至食品加工等各个领域内都可以看到机会。
Myanmar's new government is embracing Western investors.
缅甸的新政府非常欢迎西方国家的投资者。
During the years of sanctions, the main large investors were Chinese firms keen to extract oil, timber and other natural resources.
在多年制裁后,现在主要的大规模投资者是将目光放在石油,木材等自然资源上的中国企业。
Few of these firms did much for local workers, or paid much heed to the environment. Now Myanmar has other options.
但是大部分这些企业都既不关注当地环境,也没有帮助改善当地工人的生活状况。现在,缅甸国有其他选择了。
To make the country more attractive to foreign investors, the government is trying to rush through broad reforms of its legal and economic system in just a year.
当国政府正努力加紧在一年内完成从法律系统到经济系统的广泛改革。
New land and investment laws are being drafted, special economic zones created and advice solicited from all quarters.
新的国土与投资法律正在起草之中,经济特区已划好,更多的建议也从不同的地区被征集。
Officials are painting the country as the strategic nexus between China, India and South-East Asia,
中国、印度与东南亚是当下世界范围内增长速度最快的三大市场,
with easy access to the three fastest-growing markets in the world.
凭借着通向这些市场的绿色通道,缅甸官员正努力将缅甸建设为中国、印度与东南亚之间的战略纽带。
However, it will still be a hard place in which to do business.
但是,当下缅甸依然不是投资的理想环境。
First, the exchange rate is rigged.
首先,该国汇率受到操控。
The official rate is 6 kyat to the dollar;
官方利率是6缅元对1美元;
the more realistic black-market rate is about 800.
但黑市上的利率却是800:1,这一比率更真实。
The country lacks a proper banking system.
其次,该国也缺少真正的银行系统。
In the new spirit of openness, officials concede that corruption is endemic.
在开放的战略下,官方终于承认腐败现象在地方盛行。
That is putting it mildly:
如下事实以温和的方式表述了现状:
Transparency International, a watchdog, ranks it 180th out of 183 countries. Building a functioning legal system could take a long time.
监管机构透明国际,将该国在全部183个国家中放到了第180个位置。显然缅甸国想建立起真正发挥作用的法律系统还尚需时日。
A few firms have done well in Myanmar for years, despite sanctions.
尽管制裁政策的存在,依然有一些企业对在缅甸的国商业投资上表现不错。
Total, a French oil firm, is used to doing business in nasty places.
道达尔,一家法国石油公司,就曾经在使人不悦的土地上成功投资。
DHL, a German delivery company, has profited from the absence of a reliable postal service.
敦豪快运公司,一家德国物流企业,也曾经在缺少可靠邮政服务的情况下顺利盈利。
But these are exceptions.
但是这些公司都是特例。
If Myanmar wants to join the broad-based Asian boom, it will have to keep reforming for years to come.
如果缅甸想要在亚洲广泛的增长局势中分一杯羹,它还需先经历多年改革才行。

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dynamic [dai'næmik]

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adj. 动态的,动力的,有活力的
n. 动力

 
abundant [ə'bʌndənt]

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adj. 丰富的,充裕的

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timber ['timbə]

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n. 木材,木料

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attractive [ə'træktiv]

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adj. 有吸引力的,引起注意的

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legal ['li:gəl]

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adj. 法律的,合法的,法定的

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military ['militəri]

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adj. 军事的
n. 军队

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concede [kən'si:d]

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vt. 承认,给予
vi. 让步

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exchange [iks'tʃeindʒ]

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n. 交换,兑换,交易所
v. 交换,兑换,交

 
isolated ['aisəleitid]

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adj. 分离的,孤立的

 
regime [rei'ʒi:m]

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n. 政体,制度
n. 养生法(=regime

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