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托福TPO-04 Lecture 1

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Listen to part of a lecture in a biology class.

听下面生物课讲座的一部分。
The class is discussing animal behavior.
这堂课讨论的是动物行为。
Ok, the next kind of animal behavior I want to talk about might be familiar to you.
好的,接下来我要谈论的动物行为你们可能很熟悉。
You may have seen, for example, a bird that's in the middle of a mating ritual, and suddenly it stops and preens,
你们可能已经见过,例如,一只在交配仪式中间的鸟,突然停下来并用嘴整理羽毛,
you know, takes a few moments to straighten its feathers, and then returns to the mating ritual.
你们都应该知道,需要一些时间整理羽毛,然后继续交配仪式。
This kind of behavior, this doing something that seems completely out of place, is what we call a 'Displacement Activity'.
这种行为,做一些似乎完全不适合情理的行为,就是我们所说的替换活动。
Displacement activities are activities that animal's engaging in when they have conflicting drives.
替换活动是动物在矛盾冲突驱使情况下所从事的活动。
If we take our example from a minute ago, if the bird is afraid of its mate, it's conflicted.
如果举一分钟前我们的例子,如果鸟害怕它的伴侣,这无疑是矛盾的。
It wants to mate but it's also afraid and wants to run away.
它渴望伴侣但同样会感到害怕,并且想要逃跑。
So, instead, it starts grooming itself.
所以,相反,它开始打扮自己。
So, the displacement activity, the grooming, the straightening of its feathers, seems to be an irrelevant behavior.
所以,替换活动,梳理、整理羽毛看似是一种无关紧要的行为。
So, what do you think another example of a displacement activity might be?
所以,你们能想到替换活动的另一个例子吗?
How about an animal that, um, instead of fighting its enemy or running away, it attacks a plant or a bush?
一只动物,嗯,不是和敌人战斗或逃跑,而是攻击一棵植物或一株灌木如何?
That's really good suggestion, Karl.
这个建议真的很不错,卡尔。
But that's called 'redirecting'.
但是,这就是所谓的重新定向。
The animal is redirecting its behavior to another object,
动物重新定义其动作给另一个对象,
in this case, the plant or the bush.
在你的例子中另一个对象就是植物或灌木。
But that's not an irrelevant or inappropriate behavior.
但这并不是一种无关紧要或不恰当的行为。
The behavior makes sense.
这种行为是有意义的。
It's appropriate under the circumstances.
在你的例子中它是合适的。
But what doesn't make sense is the object the behavior's directed towards.
但是没有意义是对象行为的指向。
Ok, who else? Carol?
好的,还有谁?卡罗尔能举出好的例子吗?
I think I read in another class about an experiment where an object that the animal was afraid of was put next to its food-next to the animal's food.
我想到自己曾在另一节课读到过一次实验,一只实验动物害怕食物—食物的旁边有只动物。
And the animal, it was conflicted between confronting the object and eating the food, so instead, it just fell asleep.
而这只动物在面对目标及吃食物间产生了矛盾,所以,它的反应是睡觉。
Like that?
像这样的例子?
That's exactly what I mean.
这正是我的意思。
Displacement occurs because the animal's got two conflicting drives – two competing urges, in this case, fear and hunger.
替换是由于动物有两种相互矛盾所驱使-两种相互竞争的欲望,在你的例子中是恐惧和饥饿。
And what happens is, they inhibit each other,
而所发生的是,它们相互抑制,
they cancel each other out in a way,
以某种方式相互抵消,
and a third seemingly irrelevant behavior surfaces through a process that we call 'Disinhibition'.
而贯穿过程之中表面上第三种看似无关的行为,我们将其称之为抑制解除。
Now in disinhibition, the basic idea is that two drives that seem to inhibit, to hold back, a third drive.
现在抑制解除,基本的概念是两种欲望似乎抑制,为了抑制,出现第三种方式。
Or, well, they're getting in a way of each in a… in a conflict situation and somehow lose control,
或者,它们每个会处于一种…处于一种冲突情境而后不知为何故失去控制,
lose their inhibiting effect on that third behavior, which means that the third drive surfaces, it's expressed in the animal's behavior.
第三行为会导致它们失去各自的抑制效果,这意味着第三种表面行为就是表示动物的行为。
Now, these displacement activities can include feeding, drinking, grooming, even sleeping.
现在,这些替换活动可以包括喂食,喝水,打扮甚至睡觉。
These are what we call 'Comfort Behavior'.
这些都是我们所说的安慰行为。
So why do you think displacement activities are so often comfort behaviors, such as grooming?
那么你们为什么认为替换活动常常是安慰行为,比如打扮?
Maybe because it's easy for them to do?
也许,是因为很容易进行?
I mean, grooming is like one of the most accessible things an animal can do.
我的意思是,打扮就像是一种动物可以做到的其中最触手可及的事情。
It's something they do all the time,
这是它们所有时间一直在做的事情,
and they have the stimulus right there on the outside of their bodies in order to do the grooming, or if food is right in front of them.
而且打扮自己或如果食物就在面前,他们在自己的身体外面会感到刺激。
Basically, they don't have to think very much about those behaviors.
基本上,关于这些行为它们不会想太多。
Professor, isn't it possible that animals groom because they've got messed up a little from fighting or mating?
教授,难道没有可能动物们打扮自己是因为在争斗或交配中感到有些无所适从?
I mean if a bird's feathers get ruffled or an animal's fur,
我的意思是如果鸟的羽毛有了折边或动物的皮毛这样,
maybe it's not so strange for them to stop and tidy themselves up at that point.
也许它们停下来整理自己这一点上就不足为奇。
That's another possible reason although it doesn't necessarily explain other behaviors such as eating, drinking or sleeping.
尽管不一定能解释其他行为,比如吃、喝或睡觉,但是有另一个可能的原因。
What's interesting is that studies have been done that suggest that the animal's environment may play a part in determining what kind of behavior it displays.
有趣的是,研究已经完成,表明动物所处的环境在决定什么样的行为上可能发挥作用。
For example, there's a bird, the 'wood thrush', anyway, when the 'wood thrush' is in an attack-escape conflict, that is,
比如,有一只画眉鸟,不管怎样,当画眉处于攻击或者逃避的矛盾当中,
it's caught between the two urges to escape from or to attack an enemy,
即它被夹在逃避或攻击敌人两种情况间,
if it's sitting on a horizontal branch, it'll wipe its beak on its perch.
如果处于一个水平分支它会擦自己的喙。
If it's sitting on a vertical branch, it'll groom its breast feathers.
如果处于一个垂直分支它将打扮胸前的羽毛。
The immediate environment of the bird, its immediate, um,
环境直接作用于鸟类,直接作用,嗯,
its relationship to its immediate environment seems to play a part in which behavior will display.
对自身周围环境的关系似乎决定着将采取何种行为。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
immediate [i'mi:djət]

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adj. 立即的,即刻的,直接的,最接近的

联想记忆
ritual ['ritjuəl]

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n. 仪式,典礼,宗教仪式,固定程序
adj.

 
inhibit [in'hibit]

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v. 禁止,抑制
[计算机] 禁止

联想记忆
inappropriate [.inə'prəupriit]

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adj. 不适当的,不相称的

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conflict ['kɔnflikt]

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n. 冲突,矛盾,斗争,战斗
vi. 冲突,争

联想记忆
fell [fel]

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动词fall的过去式
n. 兽皮
v

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horizontal [.hɔri'zɔntl]

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adj. 水平的,横的
n. 水平线,水平面

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groom [gru:m]

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n. 马夫,新郎,男仆
vt. 刷洗,照看马,

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display [di'splei]

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n. 显示,陈列,炫耀
vt. 显示,表现,夸

 
fur [fə:]

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n. 毛皮,软毛,皮衣,毛皮制品
vt. 用毛

 

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