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托福TPO-08 Lecture 3

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Pro:So we've been talking about the printing press.

教授:我们一直在谈论印刷术,
How it changes people's lives, books more accessible to everyone.
它是如何改变了人们的生活,使得每个人都可以读书,
More books mean more reading, right?
更多的书就意味着有更多的阅读,对吧?
But, as you know, not everyone has perfect vision.
但是你所知道的样,不是每个人都有很好的视力。
This increasing literacy, um, in reading, led to an increasing demand for eye glasses.
通过阅读,文化层次变得更高,也增加了对眼镜的需求。
And here's something you probably haven't thought of.
有一些事情你们之前可能从来没有想过。
This increased demand impacted the societal attitudes toward eye glasses.
对眼镜需求的增加也影响了对眼镜的社会态度。
But, first let me back up a bit and talk about vision correction before the printing press.
让我们先回顾下在印刷术之前的视力矫正是什么样的。
And, um, what did people with poor vision do, I mean, especially those few people who were actually literate?
那些视力弱的人怎么办呢,尤其是那些少数有文化的人。
What did they do before glasses were invented?
在眼镜发明之前他们做些什么?
Well, they had different ways of dealing with not seeing well.
他们有很多不同方式来应对看不清东西这一窘境。
If you think about it, poor vision wasn't their only problem.
你想想就知道,视力弱不是他们唯一的问题。
I mean, um, think about the conditions they lived in:
我指的是,考虑到他们所生活的时代条件,
houses were dark, sometimes there weren't any windows;
房子暗,有的还没窗户,
candles were the only source of light.
蜡烛是唯一的灯光来源。
So in some places, um, like ancient Greece for example, the wealthiest people with poor vision could have someone else read to them-easy solution if you could afford it.
所以在比如古希腊的有些地方,富有但视力不好的人们可以让别人读给他们听,只要能付得起钱,这很好解决。
Another solution was something called a “reading stone”.
另一种解决办法是一种被称之为“阅读石头”的东西。
Around 1000 C.E. European monks would take a piece of clear rock, often quartz, and place it on top of the reading material.
大概在公元 1000 年左右,欧洲僧侣们会拿一块清澈的石头,一般都是拿石英,放在阅读材料的上面,
The clear rock magnified the letters, making them appear larger,
这个石头能放大字体,让字看起来大一些,
um, looks like what happens when a drop of water falls on something, whatever 's below the drop of water appears larger, right?
嗯,就像有一滴水落在上面,水下面不管是什么都看起来要大一些,对吧?
Well, the “reading stone” works in a similar way.
这跟阅读石头的工作原理是一样的。
But rocks like quartz, well, quartz of optical quality weren't cheap.
但是像具有光学性能的石英这种石头并不便宜。
Late in the 13th century, glass maker in Italy came up with a less expensive alternative.
13 世纪后期,意大利的眼镜制造商有了一种更为便宜的选择。
They made reading stones out of clear glass. And these clear glass reading stones evolved into the eye glasses we know today.
他们用玻璃做阅读石头,这些玻璃的阅读石头演变成了今天我们所知道的眼镜。
So we're pretty sure that glasses were invented about the late 1200's, well, over a hundred years before the printing press.
所以我们很明确的知道眼镜是在 12 世纪后期才发明出来的,比印刷术早了一百多年。
But it's not clear who exactly invented them first or exactly what year.
但是不知道到底是谁发明的眼镜,也不知道具体是哪年发明的。
But record shows that they were invented in both Europe and China at about the same time.
但有记录表明欧洲和中国同时发明出了眼镜。
By the way, we call this “independent discovery”.
顺便说一下,我们称这为独立发明。
Independent discovery means when something is invented in different parts of the world at the same time and it's not as unusual as it sounds.
独立发明的意思是某个东西在不同的地方同时被发明出来,而且它并不像它听起来那么特别。
You can look at the timeline chart at the back of your textbook to see when things were invented in different cultures at about the same time to see what I'm talking about.
你们可以看看教科书后面的时间表,看看不同文化背景下同一时间发明的东西,就知道我所说的了。
So now let's tie this to what I've said before about societal attitude towards glasses.
现在我们把这个跟我之前所说的对眼镜的社会态度结合起来,
Initially in parts of Europe and in China, glasses were a symbol of wisdom and intelligence.
起初在中国和欧洲的某些部分,眼镜被视为智慧和聪明的象征。
This is evidence in an artwork from the period.
这从那个时期的艺术品中就能看出来。
European paintings often portrayed doctors or judges wearing glasses.
欧洲的画作中通常描绘戴着眼镜的医生或者法官。
In China, glasses were very expensive.
在中国,眼镜以前很昂贵,
So in addition to intelligence, they also symbolize affluence, um, wealth.
因此,眼镜除了代表智慧,也代表了财富。
In 14th century Chinese portrays the bigger the glasses, the smarter and wealthier this object was.
14 世纪的中国,描绘对象戴的眼镜越大,就代表他越有钱也越聪明。
So glasses were a steady symbol in some parts of the world.
所以在世界上的某些地方眼镜一直是地位的象征。
Now let's go back to the invention of the painting press in 1440.
现在我们回过头继续探讨 1440 年印刷术的发明。
What happened? Suddenly, books became widely available and more people wanted to read.
当时发生了什么事呢?突然,很多人都有书看了,而且更多的人想看书。
So the need, oh well, actually not only the need but the demand for more affordable glasses rose drastically.
因此,对眼镜的需求,特别是对能买得起的眼镜的需求,极大的增加。
Eventually, inexpensive glasses were produced, and then glasses were available to everyone.
最后,便宜的眼镜生产出来了,后来人人都能用得上眼镜了,
People could purchase them easily from a traveling peddler.
人们可以很容易就从小贩那儿买到眼镜。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
correction [kə'rekʃən]

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n. 订正,改正,改正的地方

 
independent [indi'pendənt]

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adj. 独立的,自主的,有主见的
n. 独立

联想记忆
haven ['heivn]

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n. 港口,避难所,安息所 v. 安置 ... 于港中,

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purchase ['pə:tʃəs]

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vt. 买,购买
n. 购买,购买的物品

 
accessible [æk'sesəbl]

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adj. 可得到的,易接近的,可进入的

联想记忆
unusual [ʌn'ju:ʒuəl]

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adj. 不平常的,异常的

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source [sɔ:s]

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n. 发源地,来源,原始资料

 
steady ['stedi]

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adj. 稳定的,稳固的,坚定的
v. 使稳固

 
addition [ə'diʃən]

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n. 增加,附加物,加法

联想记忆
invention [in'venʃən]

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n. 发明,发明物,虚构,虚构物

 

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