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托福TPO-09 Lecture 1

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Listen to part of a lecture in a theater class

独白:请听一段剧院课上的演讲。
Pro:As we have seen, the second half of the 18th century was an exciting time in Europe:
教授:就如同我们所了解的,十八世纪下半世纪的欧洲是一段令人兴奋的时期:
it was not only an age of great invention,
这段时期中不仅伟大发明竞相涌现,
but social changes also led to a rise in all sorts of entertainment, from reading to museums, to travel.
而且社会变化也引发了各种娱乐的事业的崛起,从读书到博物馆再到旅游。
And finding himself in the middle of this excitement was an accomplished French painter named Philippe Jacques de Loutherbourg.
而发现自己置身于这种生活的刺激之中的是一位成就卓越的法国画家,他的名字叫做菲利普·贾奎斯·卢森伯格。
Loutherbourg arrived in England in 1771, and immediately went to work as a site designer at the famous Drury Lane Theater in London.
卢森伯格于 1771 年抵达英国,之后他立即在伦敦著名的朱瑞巷剧院担任设计师一职。
From his first shows, Loutherbourg showed a knack for imagination and stage design, all in the interest of creating illusions that allowed the audience to suspend disbelief completely.
在他的前几次展示中,卢森伯格展示了他关于想象力和舞台设计的诀窍,这一切都是出于创造幻象的利益考虑,这些幻想允许观众暂时完全的怀疑。
He accomplished this by giving the stage a greater feeling of depth,
他是通过营造舞台一种更为深度的感觉完成这样的创造的。
which he did by cutting up some of the rigid background scenery, and placing it at various angles and distances from the audience.
通过将呆滞的舞台布景分割开来分放到不同地方,角度不同,离观众的距离也不同。
Another realistic touch was using three-dimensional objects on the set, like rocks and bushes as opposed to two-dimensional painted scenery.
另一种营造真实感的方法就是在布景上运用三维物体,以二维绘成的风景为背景,在舞台上放置像石头和灌木丛的道具。
He also paid much more attention to lighting and sound than had been done before.
他同时也比以前更为注重舞台的灯光和音效。
Now, these sets were so elaborate that many people attended the theater more for them than for the actors or the stories.
如今,这样的布景做得非常精致,很多人到戏院去不是为了看演员和表演,更多的是欣赏舞台布景。
At the time, people were wild for travel and for experiencing new places;
人们曾经一度为了旅游而疯狂,想到新地方体验不同的生活,
but not everyone could afford it.
而不是每个人都能这么做。
Loutherbourg outdid himself however, with a show that he set up in his own home.
然而,卢森伯格却做到了,他超越地域的极限,在自己房里就展示出来了。
He called it the "Eidophusikon".
他将之称之为“Eidophusikon”,
"Eidophusikon" means something like representation of nature, and that's exactly what he intended to do:
其大概意思是大自然的画像,这也正是他要做的:
create realistic moving scenes that change before the audiences' eyes.
在观众眼前创造真实变化的移动场景。
In this, he synthesized all his tricks from Drury Lane:
他综合了特鲁利街戏院区中用到的所有戏法:
mechanical motions, sound, light, other special effects to create, if you will, an early multi-media production.
机械运动,音效,灯光,以及其他需要营造的效果,可以说是一种前期多媒体。
The "Eidophusikon" was Loutherbourg's attempt to release painting from the constraints of the picture frame.
“Eidophusikou”是卢森伯格将描述从图片框架中释放出来的一种尝试。
After all, even the most action field exciting painting can represent only one moment in time;
毕竟,即便很多情节场景令人兴奋,其描绘的也只是某一时刻的情景。
and any illusion of movement is gone after the first glance.
而在看过第一眼之后,任何动作场景都会烟消云散。
But Loutherbourg, like other contemporary painters, wanted to add the dimension of time to his paintings.
而卢森伯格正如当代的画家一样,想在画面中加入时间的维度。
You know, the popular thinking is that Loutherbourg was influenced by landscape painting.
你知道,大众的想法便是卢森伯格是受风景画法的影响。
But why can't we say that the "Eidophusikon" actually influenced the painters?
那为什么我们不能说“Eidophusikon”从实质上影响了画家呢?
At the very least we have to consider that it was more it was more of a mutual thing.
至少我们必须考虑这更多是种相互的东西。
We know, for example, that the important English landscape painter Thomas Gainsborough attended almost all of the yearly performances,
比如,我们所熟知的一位重要的英国风景画家托马斯·根兹伯罗几乎参加了全年所有的表演,
and his later paintings are notable for their increased color and dynamic use of light.
而他后期的画作都以渐强的色彩和生动的光线运用而闻名。
Loutherbourg's influence on the theater though, he was incredibly influential.
而卢森伯格给电影院带来的影响是巨大的。
the way he brought together design and lighting and sound as a unified feature of the stage, can easily be seen in English theater's subsequent emphasis on lighting and motion.
他将设计和灯光音效作为一个整体舞台特征呈现出来,这种方式能轻易地被看做是英语戏剧舞台对灯光和动作的连贯性的重视。
Now, the "Eidophusikon" stage was actually a box:
如今,“Eidophusikon”舞台就是一个盒子:
a few meters wide, a couple meters tall and a couple meters deep.
长宽高都有一定的规定。
That is, the action took place within this box.
而行动是在盒子里面进行的。
This was much smaller of course than the usual stage.
这肯定比真正的舞台小很多。
But, it also allowed Loutherbourg to concentrate the lighting to better effect.
但它却允许卢森伯格将灯光营造出更好的效果。
Also, the audience was in the dark, which wouldn't be a common feature of the theater until a hundred years later.
同样,观众是处在无灯区,这在一百年后才成为一般戏院的特征。
The show consisted of a series of scenes, for example, a view of London from sunrise that changes as the day moves on;
某一场演出会包含着一系列的场景,比如说,伦敦的景色从朝阳升起到一天结束,
mechanical figures, such as cattle, moved across the scene, and ships sailed along the river.
变化多样;机械景象,比如牛群会从镜头前走过,船沿着河流行驶。
But what really got people was the attention to detail, much like his work in Drury Lane.
而真正让人们注意的是细节的东西,就像在他在特鲁利街戏院区的作品一样。
So, for example, he painted very realistic ships, and varied their size depending on their distance from the audience.
所以,比如说,他画出非常写实的帆船,根据离观众的距离长短来改变船只的尺寸。
Small boats moved more quickly across the foreground than larger ones did that were closer to the horizon.
小船只在前景中移动的速度要比大船只快,而大船只更加接近水平线。
Other effects, like waves, were also very convincing.
其他诸如波浪的效果也很逼真。
They reflected sunlight or moonlight depending on the time of day or night.
波浪可以反映出时间,即白天还是黑夜,反射太阳光或月光。
Even the colors changed as they would in nature.
其颜色甚至能像自然的一样改变。
Sound and light were important in making his productions realistic.
音效和灯光效果对于他的作品生动性来说是非常重要的。
He used a great number of lights, and he was able to change colors of light by using variously colored pieces of glass, to create effects like passing clouds that suddenly change in color.
他运用各种灯光,通过使用颜色变化多样的玻璃,可以改变灯光的颜色,营造出像飘过的云朵突然变色的效果。
Furthermore, he used effects to make patterns of shadow and light, rather than using the uniform lighting that was common at the time.
再者,他运用各种特效制造阴影和灯光的图案,而不是使用当时大家普遍使用的统一的灯光效果。
And many of the sound effects he pioneered are still in use today,
很多他创造出来的音效现在还为人们所用。
like creating thunder by pulling on one of the corners of a thin copper sheet.
比如拉动厚铜纸一角制造雷声。
One of his most popular scenes was of a storm.
他所创造的最受欢迎的场景之一即暴风雨的场景。
And there is a story that on one occasion, an actual storm passed over head during the show.
而曾经有这样的事情,在演出进行过程中,一场真实的暴风雨经过戏院。
And some people went outside, and they claimed Loutherbourg's thunder was actually better than the real thunder.
演出结束后观众离场,他们说卢森伯格的雷声要比真实的暴风雨还要真实。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
cattle ['kætl]

想一想再看

n. 牛,家畜,畜牲

 
dynamic [dai'næmik]

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adj. 动态的,动力的,有活力的
n. 动力

 
designer [di'zainə]

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n. 设计者

联想记忆
varied ['vɛərid]

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adj. 各种各样的 动词vary的过去式和过去分词

 
contemporary [kən'tempərəri]

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n. 同时代的人
adj. 同时代的,同时的,

联想记忆
movement ['mu:vmənt]

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n. 活动,运动,移动,[音]乐章

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elaborate [i'læbəreit]

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adj. 精细的,详尽的,精心的
v. 详细地

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illusion [i'lu:ʒən]

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n. 幻觉,错觉,错误的信仰(或观念)

联想记忆
landscape ['lændskeip]

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n. 风景,山水,风景画
v. 美化景观

 
release [ri'li:s]

想一想再看

n. 释放,让渡,发行
vt. 释放,让与,准

联想记忆

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