手机APP下载

您现在的位置: 首页 > 托福 > 托福听力 > 托福听力真题听写 > 正文

托福TPO-09 Lecture 3

来源:可可英语 编辑:mike   VIP免费外教试听课 |  可可官方微信:ikekenet
 下载MP3到电脑  批量下载MP3和LRC到手机
加载中..

Lecturer:So,continuing our discussion of desert lakes, now I want to focus on what's known as the Empty Quarter.

演讲者:那么,我们继续讨论沙漠湖泊,现在我想主要说说空白地区。
The Empty Quarter is a huge area of sand that covers about a quarter of the Arabian Peninsula.
空白地区是一大块覆盖了四分之一的阿拉伯半岛的沙漠地带。
Today it's pretty desolate, barren and extremely hot.
现今那里非常荒凉,土地贫瘠而且极其炎热。
But there've been times in the past when monsoon rains soaked the Empty Quarter and turned it from a desert into grassland that was dotted with lakes and home to various animals.
但在过去一段时间里,季风雨将滋润这一地区并将它从沙漠转变成绿地,其上湖泊星罗棋布,各种动物在此安家。
There were actually two periods of rain and lake formation:
事实上,这里有过两次降雨和湖泊形成期:
the first one began about 35000 years ago; and the second one dates from about 10000 years ago.
第一次发生在 35000年前,第二次可追溯到 10000 年前。
Female Student:Excuse me, Professor.
女学生:不好意思,打断一下,教授。
But I'm confused. Why would lakes form in the desert?
我有点不解,为什么沙漠里会有湖泊形成呢?
It's just sand, after all.
沙漠里都是沙子啊。
Lecturer:Good question! We know from modern day desert lakes, like Lake Eyre, South Australia, that under the right conditions, lakes do form in the desert.
演讲者:问得好!我们现在知道,像澳大利亚南部的艾尔湖,就是在正常的沙漠条件下形成了的湖泊。
But the Empty Quarter lakes disappeared thousands of years ago.
但是几千年前空白地带的湖泊就消失了。
They left behind their beds or basins as limestone formations that we can still see today.
这些湖泊沉积矿或某些流域是作为石灰岩层存留至今,我们仍然可以看到。
They look like low-lying, white or grey builds, long, narrow hills with flat tops, barely a meter high.
地处低洼地带,灰白相间,看起来像狭长而平顶的山丘,几乎不到一米高。
A recent study of some of the formations presents some new theories about the area's past.
最近对于某些岩层的研究中提到了关于该地区过去形态的某些理论。
Keep in mind though that this study only looked at 19 formations.
记住,这次研究只是针对19种构造进行的。
And about a thousand have been documented.
而将近1000种构造已经被记录在册。
So there's a lot more work to be done.
所以我们还有很多研究要做。
According to the study, two factors were important for lake formation in the Empty Quarter:
根据此次研究,空白地带的湖泊构造有两个重要的因素:
first the rains that fell there were torrential.
第一,该地区的降雨是倾盆而注的,
So it would've been impossible for all the water to soak into the ground.
而本来所有的雨水是不可能渗入到地底下的。
Second, as you know, sand dunes contain other types of particles, besides sand, including clay and silt.
第二,你们知道,沙丘中含有其他种类的粒子,除了沙子之外,还包括黏土和泥沙。
Now, when the rain fell, water ran down the sides of the dunes, carrying clay and silt particles with it.
如今,降雨的时候,雨水会沿着沙丘两边留下,带走黏土和泥沙颗粒。
And wherever these particles settled, they formed a pan, a layer that water couldn't penetrate.
不管什么时候这些颗粒停留下来了,他们便会形成一块面板,这是一层水分无法渗透的面板。
Once this pan formed, further run-off collected, and formed a lake.
面板一旦形成,颗粒便会有更多流失,从而形成湖泊。
Now, the older lakes, about half the formations, the ones started forming 35000 years ago, the limestone formation we see, they're up to a kilometer long, but only a few meters wide,
而年代更为久远的湖泊,大概占到一半的构造,它们于 35000 年前就已经形成。我们所看到的石灰岩层高达一千米,而宽却只有几米。
and they're scattered along the desert floor, in valleys between the dunes.
他们沿着沙漠地板和沙丘间山谷分布。
So, the theory is, the lakes formed there, along the desert floor, in these long narrow valleys.
所以,这里的理论是,湖泊沿着沙漠地板在这些狭长的山谷中形成。
And we know, because of what we know about similar ancient desert lakes, we know that the lakes didn't last very long, from a few months to a few years on average.
而我们知道,正因为我们了解相类似的古代沙漠湖泊,我们才知道这些湖泊存在的时间不长,平均是几个月到几年时间。
As for the more recent lakes, the ones from 10000 years ago, well, they seemed to have been smaller, and so may have dried up more quickly.
而对于比较近期才形成的湖泊,那些 10000 年前形成的湖泊,嗯,他们似乎更为小,所以可能会更快干涸。
Another difference, very important today for distinguishing between older lake beds and newer ones, is the location of the limestone formations.
另一个今天我们要谈到的区别,区分年代久远和近期形成的湖泊沉积矿,就是石灰岩层的所在地。
The more recent beds are high up in the dunes.
近期的沉积矿在沙丘中位置更高。
Why these differences?
为什么有这些不同呢?
Well, there are some ideas about that, and they have to do with the shapes of the sand dunes, when the lakes were formed.
嗯,这里有一些说法,这些沉积矿跟沙丘的形状有关。
37000 years ago, the dunes were probably nicely rounded at the top, so the water just ran right down their sides to the desert floor.
37000 年前湖泊形成的时候,沙丘的顶部很可能是圆状的,因此雨水就只是从两边顺势流到沙漠地表。
But there were thousands of years of wind between the two rainy periods, reshaping the dunes.
而在两个雨季之间几千年来刮风不止就重新塑形沙丘。
So, during the second rainy period, the dunes were kind of chopped up at the top, full of hollows and ridges, and these hollows would've captured the rain right there on the top.
那么在第二次雨季期间,沙丘的顶部被分割成满是凹陷的空洞和隆起线,而这些洞就足以储存从顶部留下的雨水。
Now, in grassland of Lake Ecosystem, we'd expect to find fossils from a variety of animals, and numerous fossils have been found at least at these particular sites.
如今,在湖泊生态系统的草地上,我们期望发现各种动物的化石,而至少在某些特定的地方我们已经发现了很多化石。
But, where did these animals come from?
但是,这些动物是从哪里来的呢?
Well, the theory that has been suggested is that they migrated in from nearby habitats where they were already living.
嗯,该理论一直以来说的就是动物从附近的栖息地迁徙而来。
Then as the lakes dried up, they died out.
随着湖泊干涸,动物灭绝。
The study makes a couple of interesting points about the fossils, which I hope will be looked at in future studies.
此次研究中有几个有趣的点是关于化石的,我希望这些点在未来的研究中会被重视。
At older lake sites, their fossil remains from hippopotamuses, water buffalo, animals that spend much of their lives standing in water, and also, fossils of cattle.
在年代久远的湖泊遗址中,发现的化石是河马,水牛这些在水中长时间生活的生物,还有,牛的化石。
However, at the sites of the more recent lakes, there're only cattle fossils, additional evidence for geologists that these lakes were probably smaller, shallower, because cattle only use water for drinking.
然而,在较为近期形成的湖泊遗址中,却只发现了牛的化石,对于地理学家来说,这是另外的证据,证明湖泊很可能更小更浅,因为牛只饮水。
So they survive on much less.
所以他们存活的数量要少很多。
Interestingly, there are clams and snail shells; but, no fossils of fish.
有趣的是,还有蛤蜊和蜗牛壳,但是没有鱼的化石。
We're not sure why.
我们不确定为什么。
Maybe there is a problem with the water.
也许是湖水的问题。
Maybe it was too salty.
也许湖水太咸了。
That's certainly true of other desert lakes.
其他的沙漠湖泊湖水确实如此。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
impossible [im'pɔsəbl]

想一想再看

adj. 不可能的,做不到的
adj.

联想记忆
peninsula [pi'ninsjulə]

想一想再看

n. 半岛

联想记忆
lecturer ['lektʃərə]

想一想再看

n. 演讲者,讲师

 
penetrate ['penitreit]

想一想再看

v. 穿透,渗透,看穿

联想记忆
survive [sə'vaiv]

想一想再看

vt. 比 ... 活得长,幸免于难,艰难度过

联想记忆
confused [kən'fju:zd]

想一想再看

adj. 困惑的;混乱的;糊涂的 v. 困惑(confu

 
formation [fɔ:'meiʃən]

想一想再看

n. 构造,编队,形成,队形,[地]地层

联想记忆
extremely [iks'tri:mli]

想一想再看

adv. 极其,非常

联想记忆
layer ['leiə]

想一想再看

n. 层
vi. 分层
vt. 将某

联想记忆
soaked [səukt]

想一想再看

adj. 湿透的 动词soak的过去式和过去分词

 

    阅读本文的人还阅读了:
  • 托福TPO-09 Lecture 2 2013-08-28
  • 托福TPO-09 Conversation 2 2013-08-29
  • 托福TPO-09 Lecture 4 2013-09-03
  • 托福TPO-10 Conversation 1 2013-09-04
  • 托福TPO-10 Lecture 1 2013-09-09
  • 新东方托福网络课程:试听更多托福网络课程>>

    发布评论我来说2句

      可可英语官方微信(微信号:ikekenet)

      每天向大家推送短小精悍的英语学习资料.

      添加方式1.扫描上方可可官方微信二维码。
      添加方式2.搜索微信号ikekenet添加即可。