手机APP下载

您现在的位置: 首页 > 托福 > 托福听力 > 托福听力真题听写 > 正文

托福TPO-09 Lecture 4

来源:可可英语 编辑:mike   VIP免费外教试听课 |  可可官方微信:ikekenet
 下载MP3到电脑  批量下载MP3和LRC到手机
加载中..

Listen to part of a lecture in a linguistics class.

请听下面语言学课的一部分。
The professor has been discussing Animal communication systems.
教授一直在讨论动物交流体系。
OK, so last time, we covered the dances honey bees do to indicate where food can be found and the calls and sounds of different types of birds.
好的,上次我们讲到蜜蜂的舞蹈是为了指出食物在什么地方,我们还谈到不同种鸟的相互呼唤及发出的各种声音。
Today, I'd like to look at some communication systems found in mammals,
今天,我想探讨一下哺乳动物身上的某些交流体系,
particularly in primates, such as orangutans, chimpanzees, gorillas... Yes, Thomas?
特别是像猩猩,黑猩猩和大猩猩的灵长类动物…好的,托马斯,有问题吗?
Excuse me, Professor.
不好意思老师,
But when you talk about gorilla language, do you mean like, those experiments where humans taught them sign language or a language like...
当你讲到大猩猩的语言时,你是说像人类进行的教大猩猩手语或其他语言的实验吗?
OK, wait just a minute.
嗯,你先等一下,
Now, who in this class heard me use the word language? No one I hope.
在座的同学听到我用了语言这个词吗?我想没有。
What we're talking about here, are systems of communication, all right?
我们这里讲的是交流的体系,是吧?
Oh, sorry, communication, right. But could you maybe, like, clarify with the differences?
哦,对不起,交流,对。但您能否,将两者区分一下?
Of course, that's a fair question.
当然,这个问题提的不错。
OK, well, to start with, let's make it clear that language is a type of communication, not the other way around.
好的,嗯,首先,我们需要明确语言是一种交流方式,而不能颠倒过来。
OK, so all communication systems, language included, have certain features in common.
那么包括语言在内的所有交流体系都有共同的特征。
For example, the signals used to communicate from the bee's dance movements, to the word and sentences found in human languages.
比如说,从蜜蜂做出的跳舞动作的信号,到人类语言中的单词和句子。
All these signals convey meaning.
所有这些信号都传递出某些信息。
And all communication systems serve a purpose, a pragmatic function of some sort.
而所有的交流体系都是有目的的,某种实用主义的功能。
Warning of danger perhaps or offering other needed information.
也许是对出现危险的警告或提供其他需要的信息。
But there're several features peculiar to human language that have, for the most part, never been found in the communication system of any other species.
但是在人类语言中有几种特征,在其他任何物种的交流体系中从来没有发现过。
For one thing, learn ability.
首先是学习能力。
Animals have instinctive communication systems.
动物有本能的交流体系。
When a dog, a puppy gets to certain age, it's able to bark.
当一只小狗长到一定岁数的时候它便能吠叫。
It barks without having to learn how from other dogs, it just barks.
它不用从其他狗身上学什么就会吠了。
But much of human language has to be learned from other humans.
然而,人类语言很多都需要从他人那里习得。
What else makes human language unique?
还有什么其他特征让人类语言独一无二呢?
What makes it different from animal communication? Debber?
什么让人类与动物交流产生明显差异呢?黛博有什么看法吗?
How about grammar? Like having verbs, nouns, adjectives?
语法?比如有动词名词形容词之分?
OK, that's another feature. And it's a good example...
好的,这是另一种特征。是个好例子…
I mean I mention this cause like in my biology class last year, I kind of remember talking about a study on prairie dogs, where, I think the researchers claimed that the warning cries of prairie dogs constitute language, because they have this, different parts of speech.
就像我去年在生物课上说到的,我记得当时讲到一次关于草原犬鼠的研究。我想研究人员宣称草原犬鼠发出的警告声构成了语言,因为它们这种不同的说话的能力。
You know, like nouns, to name the type of predator they spotted, adjectives to describe its size and shape, verbs...but now it seems like...
你知道,像说出它们发现的捕猎者类型的名词,描述大小和外形的形容词,动词等,但现在看起来…
All right, hold on a moment.
好的,等等,
I'm familiar with the study you're talking about.
我对你说的研究很是熟悉,
And for those of you who don't know, prairie dogs are not actually dogs.
而你们中可能有人不知道,草原犬鼠实际上不是狗,
They're type of rodent who burrows in the ground and the grasslands of the west United States and Mexico.
它们是藏在美国西部和墨西哥洞穴和草原中的啮齿类动物。
And in this study, the researchers looked at the high-pitched barks a prairie dog makes when it spots predator.
而在研究中,研究人员研究的是当它们发现捕猎者时,发出的高亢的吠叫声。
And from this they made some pretty, well, they made some claims about these calls qualifying as an actual language, with its own primitive grammar.
而从中他们会发出一些很…呃,他们发出的呼唤宣称了这是一种真实的语言,运用他们自己原始的语法。
But actually, these warning calls are no different from those found among certain types of monkeys.
但事实上,这些警告声与在某一种类猴子上发现的别无他样。
Well, let's not even get into the question whether concepts like noun and verb can be meaningfully applied to animal communication.
嗯,我们不要卷入这样的问题:像名词或动词的概念是否会被有意义地运用在动物的交流中。
Another thing that distinguishes a real language is a property we call discreteness.
另一种我们将真正的语言区分开来的因素是一种我们称为间断性的特质。
In other words, messages are built up out of smaller parts, sentences out of words, words out of individual sounds, etc.
换句话说,信息是由各种小部分信息组成的,句子是由各种单词组成的,单词是来自于各个音素组成的,等等。
Now maybe you could say that the prairie dog's message is built from smaller parts, like say for example, our prairie dogs spot a predator, a big coyote approaching rapidly.
而也许你会说草原犬鼠发出的信息是来自更小部分的信息,比如,草原犬鼠发现捕猎者,一只草原狼正在迅速靠近。
So the prairie dog makes a call that means coyote, then one that means large, and then another one to indicate its speed.
因此一只草原犬鼠会发出表示草原狼和大只的信号,而还有另一个信号,表示其靠近速度有多快。
But you really suppose it makes any difference what order these calls come in? No.
但你会真的认为这些呼唤信号的次序不同意义也不同?不,
But the discrete units that make up language can be put together in different ways.
然而这种组成语言的间断的单元不能以不同的方式组合起来。
Those smaller parts can be used to form an infinite number of messages, including messages that are completely novel, that have never been expressed before.
单位小的信息能够用来组成无限数量的信号,包括那些全新的信号抑或那些以前表达过的。
For example, we can differentiate between:
比如,我们可以区分两者:
A large coyote moves fast. and say Move the large coyote fast. or Move fast, large coyote., and I truly doubt whether anyone has ever uttered either of these sentences before.
一只草原狼快速移动和将草原狼移动得快点或者动作快点,大只草原狼。而我真的怀疑是否有人曾经说过以上这些句子。
Human language is productive and open-ended communication system, whereas no other communication system has this property.
人类语言是一种多产而自由开放的交流体系,而其他语言交流体系没有这种特质。
And another feature of language that's not displayed by any form of animal communication is what we call displacement.
另一种任何动物交流都没有显示过的语言特征叫做位移。
That is, language is abstract enough that we can talk about things that aren't present here and now.
那就是,语言是抽象的,我们所讲的东西可以此时此刻此地并不在场。
Things like my friend Joe is not in the room. or It will probably rain next Thursday.
比如我的朋友乔不在房间里或下周四很可能下雨。
Prairie dogs may be able to tell you about a hawk at circling over head right now, but they never show any inclination to describe the one they saw last week.
草原犬鼠也许能够跟你说你的上空有一只老鹰正在盘旋,但是他们从来没有能够描述上周看到的东西。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
property ['prɔpəti]

想一想再看

n. 财产,所有物,性质,地产,道具

联想记忆
function ['fʌŋkʃən]

想一想再看

n. 功能,函数,职务,重大聚会
vi. 运行

 
hawk [hɔ:k]

想一想再看

n. 鹰,掠夺别人的人,鹰派人物
n. 清嗓<

联想记忆
communication [kə.mju:ni'keiʃn]

想一想再看

n. 沟通,交流,通讯,传达,通信

 
clarify ['klærifai]

想一想再看

vt. 澄清,阐明,使 ... 明晰

联想记忆
abstract ['æbstrækt]

想一想再看

n. 摘要,抽象的东西
adj. 抽象的,理论

联想记忆
productive [prə'dʌktiv]

想一想再看

adj. 能生产的,有生产价值的,多产的

联想记忆
bark [bɑ:k]

想一想再看

v. (狗)吠,咆哮
n. 狗吠,咆哮

 
certain ['sə:tn]

想一想再看

adj. 确定的,必然的,特定的
pron.

 
predator ['predətə]

想一想再看

n. 食肉动物,掠夺者

联想记忆

    阅读本文的人还阅读了:
  • 托福TPO-09 Conversation 2 2013-08-29
  • 托福TPO-09 Lecture 3 2013-09-02
  • 托福TPO-10 Conversation 1 2013-09-04
  • 托福TPO-10 Lecture 1 2013-09-09
  • 托福TPO-10 Lecture 2 2013-09-10
  • 新东方托福网络课程:试听更多托福网络课程>>

    发布评论我来说2句

      可可英语官方微信(微信号:ikekenet)

      每天向大家推送短小精悍的英语学习资料.

      添加方式1.扫描上方可可官方微信二维码。
      添加方式2.搜索微信号ikekenet添加即可。