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经济学人:日本的企业家 到了该开始的时间了

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Business

商业报道
Entrepreneurs in Japan
日本的企业家
Time to get started
到了该开始的时间了
Shinzo Abe is giving new hope to Japan's unappreciated entrepreneurs
安倍晋三给了日本不被看好的企业家们希望
IT BEGINS from now, tweeted Takafumi Horie, the former boss of Livedoor, an internet firm, two months after emerging from prison this spring.
信息技术时代从现在开始, 堀江贵文说道。
Mr Horie is involved in no fewer than 30 new companies, including a space-tourism venture.
堀江贵文是门户网站活力门的前总经理,前两个月刚从监狱中被释放。
If any of them grow to be big, Mr Horie, who was convicted of fraud in 2011, may show that a fallen Japanese entrepreneur can make a comeback.
堀江贵文涉足于不少于30家的新公司,包括一家太空旅行企业。如果这些公司中的任何一家发展起来了,堀江贵文,这个曾在2011年被告有罪的企业家,将证明一个失败的日本企业家可以东山再起。
The mood among Japan's would-be business moguls is at its most buoyant since the dotcom bubble burst a decade or so ago.
由于十几年前的互联网泡沫的破裂,日本那些想要成为商业精英的人正怀着十分沉重的心情。
A higher stockmarket is boosting the chances of a successful initial public offering.
股票市场正在提高它首次成功公开募股的机会。
The prime minister, Shinzo Abe, is Japan's first leader to treat entrepreneurs as something more than greedy hustlers.
安倍晋三首相,是日本第一位处理这些如贪婪的骗子般的企业家们的问题。

For the past few years Mr Horie, a brash self-publicist, has been exhibit A in the case for holding that view.

在过去的几年里,堀江贵文,一个傲慢又自我的公关,在那起案件中率先出示证据来阐明自己的观点。
But now Mr Horie says he is being welcomed back into the business world.
但是现在,堀江贵文说他回到企业界这件事倍受欢迎。
Mr Abe's three-part plan to revive the economy, known asAbenomics, is designed to help start-ups as well as big business.
安倍晋三复苏经济的三步计划被称为安倍经济复苏计划,是用来帮助新兴小企业和已有的大企业的。
First came monetary loosening from the Bank of Japan, and a fiscal stimulus.
首先是日本中央银行的货币放松政策,紧接着加大财政开支。
The third part, a series of reforms to boost long-term growth rates, includes radical deregulation in newspecial economic zones spread across the country.
第三部分是一系列的刺激长期增长率的改革,包括在经济特区放松管制。
If this pledge is honoured, many new opportunities could emerge for entrepreneurs in industries ranging from medical care to agriculture.
如果这个经济计划成功了,很多给企业家的新机会就会大量的涌来,横跨医疗服务业和农业。
The reforms also involve pressing the banks to stop demanding onerous personal guarantees when entrepreneurs seek loans for their businesses.
这个改革同时施压给银行,让银行停止向企业家索要大量的个人担保当企业家们想要为他们的企业借贷时。
Most of all, Mr Abe admits, Japan needs to become more accepting of initial failure.
最重要的是,安倍晋三承认,日本需要去接受首次失败。
As a second-time prime minister after a disastrous first term, he is himself a comeback kid.
作为一个第一次以失败告终,第二次登上首相位置的领导人,安倍晋三自己就是一个东山再起的例子。
He reportedly described for guests at his home this summer how the young Walt Disney ran his business into the ground five times before he at last succeeded.
有报道称,他这个夏天邀请客人到自己家中,并向客人描述年轻的华特迪士尼在最终成功前是怎样经历了五次失败的。
Digital types were delighted when he attended a meeting of the Japan Association of New Economy, chaired by Hiroshi Mikitani, the founder of Rakuten, an online-commerce giant.
数字类型企业很乐观,当安倍晋三参加新经济联盟的一个会议时。此次会议由三木谷浩史主办。
Mr Mikitani has been brought in to advise the government on its deregulation efforts.
三木谷浩史,日本乐天公司的创始人,一位网上贸易伟人。三木谷浩史建议过日本政府实行货币放松政策。
For now, Japan's vital signs on entrepreneurship are dire.
现在,日本企业家的状况不容乐观。
The overall number of firms is shrinking, and the rate at which new companies are born as a proportion of existing ones is less than half that in America and Britain.
公司的总数正在大量减少,新公司的诞生率比英美的一半还少。
In 2012 the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, a survey by a group of universities, put Japan in joint last place out of 24 developed nations for levels of entrepreneurial activity.
根据2012年的全球创业观察报告的一份调查显示,日本由于创业活动长期不景气的水平,被放到了24个发达国家之外。
Japan's record on fostering new firms is worse even than continental Europe's.
日本的一份关于发展新兴企的报告结果甚至比欧洲大陆的还要糟糕。
Just 6% of Japanese participants in the survey thought there were opportunities to start a business in their country, and only 9% believed they personally had the skills required.
调查显示,只有6%的参与者认为在他们本国家日本创建新企业是有机会发展的,9%的人认为他们已经掌握了创建新企业所需要的技术。
The equivalent figures for the French were 38% and 36%.
相同的调查问题在法国的结果是38%和36%。
Other Asians, in contrast, were bursting with optimism.
相反地,在其他亚洲地区新兴企业的发展很乐观。
That lack of ambition means venture-capital firms have few big payoffs to look forward to, with the result that there is a limited pool of cash available for those who do want to have a go at starting a business: a vicious circle that will be hard to break.
抱负心的缺乏使得风险投资公司很难下定决心去投资,从而使得那些确实想要经营一家企业的企业家缺少现金支持,这将会成为一个很难打破的恶性循环。
Young Japanese firms attract around one-twentieth of the venture-capital money that start-ups in America pull in.
新兴的日本公司会吸引二十分之一的新兴美国风投公司的资金投入。
The outlook for creating new businesses could begin to improve if Mr Abe succeeds in leaning on the banks to stop demanding extensive debt guarantees.
如果安倍晋三成功的让银行不再要求借贷企业家提供大量的借贷凭证,创建新型公司的前景可能会有所发展。
Now many would-be entrepreneurs, faced with the risk of losing their homes, give up before they start.
现在,很多想要进入企业家行列的人由于会担有失去家的风险,所以他们在开始之前就放弃了。
In the short term the reform may make capital a little scarcer as banks tread cautiously.
在短期内,此项改革会使得银行放出更少的资金投资,因为银行的每一步都会走的很慎重。
But in the long run it could transform Japan's attitude to entrepreneurship, says Yoshito Hori, the founder of GLOBIS, a business school.
但是长期来看,这项改革将会改变日本人对企业家原有的态度,堀义人说道。堀义人,商业学校GLOBIS的创建人。
The industry ministry is promising to provide generous funding with the aim of doubling Japan's rate of business start-ups by 2020.
工业部门保证,他们会提供大量资金,让日本在2020年前实现新兴企业增长率变为两倍。
To do that it will have to add another 100,000 start-ups to the current annual tally.
为了实现这个目标,必须在当前的基础上,每年再增加100,000个的新兴企业才可以。
However, its record on picking winners is not great:
然而,挑选赢家的报告却不是很好:
its bureaucrats famously tried to stop the young Sony importing transistor technology and Honda from moving into cars.
官员们已经烦透了去阻止索尼进口三极管科技和本田公司转向汽车行业。
So the risk is that it ends up backing many duds, draining the public coffers to little benefit.
所以这样做的风险是,会对很多已有的企业不利,所得的利润也微乎其微。
The mother-in-law factor
岳母的因素
There are other reasons to be optimistic.
当然也存在着乐观原因。
The success of the big firms born in Japan's great period of post-war entrepreneurialism later discouraged graduates from joining newer ventures.
大公司在日本战后鼎盛时期的成功诞生削弱了毕业生们加入这场商业冒险的想法。
Experienced managers are seldom keen to leave large companies.
有经验的管理者很少会离开大公司。
Wives, mothers and mothers-in-law exert a strong influence on men not to join risky start-ups, says Yoshiaki Ishii, head of new-business policy at the industry ministry.
妻子,妈妈,以及岳母给了男人们很大的影响,让他们不要踏入有风险的新兴企业,石井说道。石井,工业部门新兴企业的管理者。
But the perceived balance of risk is shifting.
但是这种感知到的风险正在转移。
Many of the giants are struggling.
很多的领袖搜在努力着。
The cost of starting a firm is plunging thanks to cloud computing and other innovations.
创建一家新企业的花费得益于云计算和其他一些创新。
Mr Horie says he is financing his new ventures through crowdfunding networks such as Campfire.
堀江贵文说,他正在通过群众募资网站为他的企业筹资,例如: 萤火网站。
The government could help to remove plenty of other hurdles to entrepreneurship.
政府可以帮助去除很多阻碍企业家精神的障碍。
One difficulty for science and technology start-ups is that large Japanese firms have signed up exclusive rights for the bulk of university discoveries.
创业的科学技术难点之一就是日本的大公司会签约买下大量的大学研究成果。
Small, disruptive firms are not usually able to access and develop them. And a widespreadnot invented here mindset stops established firms joining up with small ones to commercialise new ideas.
这样子就会导致小公司无法很好的发展。一个广为流传的不要在这里起家的心态也使得公司不想要去和小公司合并。
As a result many recent ventures—such as DeNA and GREE, two social-gaming operators—have been internet and software businesses that depend less on research, notes Daisuke Iwase, a founder of Lifenet, an online insurance firm.
结果使得现在很多的企业—像DeNA和格力,两家社交类游戏经营公司—都经营着网络和软件这些不太依赖于调查的业务,一家网上保险公司救生网的创建人Daisuke Iwase阐述道。
There is too much talent chasing after smartphone apps and social gaming, he says.
继智能手机应用软件和社交类游戏之后,有太多类似的很棒的应用陆续出现,他说道。
So, some experts have recommended forcing large firms either to develop the discoveries to which they have the rights, or else to pass them on.
因此,一些专家建议,强制大公司继续买断大学研究成果,或者把研究成果转让。
Japan's entrepreneurs still feel vulnerable to sudden crackdowns, and fear they would be punished more harshly than big-business chiefs.
日本的企业家们因为这样的制裁而身心疲惫,他们害怕自己会受到比这些大公司领导更为严厉的惩罚。
Last year GREE unexpectedly found itself under investigation for possibly violating gambling laws.
去年,格力公司意外地发现自己可能由于违反赌博法律,而处于被监视状态。
Its young, billionaire founder, Yoshikazu Tanaka, has since tried to ingratiate himself with the establishment:
格力旗下年轻的亿万富翁田中良和试图让自己符合与公司制度:
he now appears in a suit, not a T-shirt.
现在,他在公司不穿体恤衫而改为西装了。
In all, much has to change before Japan becomes a kinder place for those trying to create businesses.
总而言之,在日本变得很适合创业者们生存之前,还有许多的改变需要去做。
There is a risk that Abenomics fails and brings about quite a different sort of rupture in the corporate climate, says Jeffrey Char, an entrepreneur and investor.
安倍经济复苏计划存在着失败的风险,这将会使得公司合作风气破裂,杰弗里查说道。杰弗里查是一位企业家,也是一位投资商。
If the central bank's radical monetary loosening is not followed by thorough deregulation and strong growth, the result could be a sovereign-debt crisis.
如果中央银行的货币放松政策没有彻底的实施和强有的巩固的话,可能会导致严重的主权债务危机。
In such a crisis many of Japan's biggest firms could collapse, says Mr Char:
在这样一种危机下,很多日本的大公司都将会瓦解,杰弗里查说道:
that would leave people with no choice but to start their own businesses. Boosting entrepreneurship through reforms would certainly be less painful.
这将会使人们没得选择,只能创建新公司。通过改革而刺激企业家精神明显是一个更好的选择。
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promising ['prɔmisiŋ]

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survey [sə:'vei]

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burst [bə:st]

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entrepreneurial [,ɔntrəprə'nə:riəl]

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exclusive [iks'klu:siv]

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