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经济学人:欧盟电信规制 克洛伊持大局

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EU telecoms regulation
欧盟电信规制
Kroes control
克洛伊持大局
The digital commissioner proposes a single market to speed up Europe
数字委员会提出单一市场来加速欧洲电信网络
EUROPE wasn't always a digital laggard.
欧洲也不总是一个数字界落后者,
Its telecoms operators were far quicker than America's to build 3G mobile-telecoms networks.
就拿建立3G手机电信网络来说,欧洲的电信营业商比美国的要快很多,
Nokia once made the world's coolest mobile phones.
且诺基亚也曾生产过世界最酷的手机。
But the old continent has fallen behind. Only a quarter of the European Union's people have access to new 4G networks, according to the European Commission.
只是古老的欧洲大陆还是落后了。据欧委会信息,欧盟内仅有四分之一国民能使用4G网络。
In America a single company, Verizon, reaches nine out of ten.
而美国的威瑞森电信,其电信网络的覆盖率达到十分之九。

South Korea's broadband speeds leave Europe standing.

韩国的宽带速度也远超欧洲。
Apple and Samsung make today's palmfuls of desire.
苹果,三星促使了今天人们对于网速的渴求。
Neelie Kroes, the commissioner overseeing Europe's digital agenda, thinks crisper connectivity would be a boon not just for the EU's telecoms industry and its consumers but for the union's entire economy, from transport to health care.
欧洲的数字议程由欧委会委员尼莉叶·克洛伊监管着,她认为较弱的连接不仅对欧盟电信行业和其使用者有好处,整个欧盟的经济,从运输到医疗都能受益。
On September 11th Ms Kroes published a plan, in the shape of a draft regulation, to bring Europe up to speed.
9月11日,克洛伊女士以草案形式拟出一项提议来加速欧洲电信网络,
The regulation is subject to approval by both the European Parliament and the Council of Ministers.
并得到了欧洲议会和部长理事会的认可。
Ms Kroes proposes a single market in an industry that still runs on national lines.
克洛伊女士提议以服务国内线路为主,在通信行业内实行单一市场。
Plenty of operators serve several EU countries.
在欧洲,大量的电信运行商同时为几个欧盟国家服务,
But none operates in more than half of the 28 states, each of which has its own regulator and rules.
但是对于欧盟里,拥有自己规章制度的28个国家,没有哪一个运行商的客户国超过一半。
The prices that network owners may charge competitors to rent copper wires vary by a factor of three.
网络持有者对竞争者们网线收费价格的变动受三个因素的影响,
Spectrum prices for 4G vary by a factor of 50.
4G的光谱价格的变动因素增加到4倍,
Retail prices differ widely too.
零售价格也大不相同。
Europeans pay extra to make calls to other EU countries or to use their phones abroad.
欧洲人打垮国电话或者在国外使用手机都会被收取额外费用。
Many travellers turn off data roaming to avoid being stung.
许多游客会选择关闭漫游以避免额外收费。
The commissioner wants to make it easier for telecoms operators to enter new markets.
克洛伊希望能让电信运营商进入新的市场变得简单一点,
A license in one country should be good in all.
一个国家的许可证也能够在他国通用。
Future allocations of spectrum should be standardised,to make a pan-European business easier to plan.
将来光谱的配给应标准化,以使泛欧洲商业能简单计划,
Regulators should also facilitate sharing and trading of spectrum.
而监管者也需帮助光谱的分享和交易。
But the idea is not to favour entry regardless of all else.
但是这个构想不是偏好某一项而不顾其他。
To encourage investment in fast fibre-optic broadband,Ms Kroes recommends stabilising the prices that incumbent operators can charge entrants for renting older, slower copper wires.
为了鼓励在以光导纤维为主体的快速宽带的投资,克洛伊女士建议增加现有运行商对新入网者在租用更老,更慢网线的费用。
If fees are too low, entrants will undercut the whizzy new networks.
如果费用过低,新入网者就会减少使用新网络的人。
For consumers, the most eye-catching proposal is to scrap roaming fees, as Ms Kroes has long wanted to do.
对使用者而言,提议中最吸引眼球的就是免掉漫游费,这也是克洛伊女士一直希望看到的。
Operators will be encouraged to allow them to roam like at home—paying nothing extra for data or calls when they are abroad.
运营商受到鼓励,允许那些游客像在国内一样使用网络,不会因为漫游或者跨国电话而被多收费。
Companies with such deals will escape another rule, obliging them to let customers use another provider when they travel.
而采取了本项提议的公司也免除了另外一项制度,即使用者在旅游时不必更换运营商。
Calls from home to other EU countries will be charged at domestic rates.
跨国电话也将按国内标准收费。
Ms Kroes also says she will protect net neutrality.
克洛伊女士还表示,她会保护网络中立,
By this she means banning operators from blocking services, as some mobile firms do to internet voice calls, for example.
也就是说,禁止运营商妨碍服务,就像有些手机公司对网络语音通话所做的。
But she will allow operators to charge more for better service, such as higher speed.
但是对于更好地服务,运营商可以收取更高费用,例如,更快的网速。
This is also a thorny subject in America:
这也是美国电讯通信的一大痛:
lawyers for Verizon and the Federal Communications Commission, a regulator, had a preliminary skirmish in court this week.
本周,威瑞森电信的律师代表跟监管机构,联邦通信委员会在法庭发生小争执。
Consumers will doubtless be delighted at not having to fork out for checking e-mail or consulting online maps whenever they cross a border.
毫无疑问,使用者会很开心,无论什么时候出国查收e-mail或者翻阅网络地图,也不用付费了。
Mobile operators are grumbling at that. Incumbent broadband firms should like the copper-price idea.
移动运营商却是对此有些牢骚,而现有的宽带公司应该是喜欢铜线方案的。
Ms Kroes is right that Europe's telecoms markets are too fragmented.
对于欧洲电讯通信行业的碎片性,克洛伊女士的观点很正确,
But pan-European licensing may not help much.
但是泛欧洲许可证并不能起很大作用。
Most operators and analysts think that mergers inside borders are a likelier route.
大部分运营商和分析家认为,更有可能实行国内合并这一方案。
Several deals have been agreed or mooted in recent months, notably in Germany where, if regulators allow Telefónica of Spain to buy Dutch-owned e-Plus, the number of mobile operators will be reduced from four to three.
近几个月来,一些观点已经获得同意或者提出了,尤其是在德国,如果德国的监管机构允许西班牙电信购买荷兰持有的e,那么移动运营商的数目会有4减少到3。
In more concentrated markets Europe's operators would probably be more profitable.
在更加集中的市场,欧洲的运营商很可能获利,
That, they argue, would give them the incentive to build the infrastructure Europe's politicians demand.
有人分析说,这是因为在这样的市场氛围里,运营商会更加有动力去建立基础的欧洲政治家们的需求。
The snag is that this might mean higher prices, too: Americans may have faster networks, but they pay a lot more.
但问题是,这也意味着更高价格。美国人能拥有更快的网络,但是他们支付的也更多,
On that, Europe's regulators are likely to be much less keen.
欧洲监管机构不太可能喜欢这种方式。
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regulation [.regju'leiʃən]

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n. 规则,规章,管理
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