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托福TPO-10 Lecture 4

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Narrator:Listen to part of a lecture in a Psychology Class.

独白:听下面一部分的心理学课程讲座
Professor:OK. If I ask about the earliest thing you can remember, I will bet for most of you, your earliest memory would be about from age of 3, right?
教授:好了,如果我问大家最早记事是在什么时候,我猜你们多数人都会说 3 岁左右,对吗?
Well, that's true for most adults.
多数成年人确实如此。
We cannot remember anything that happened before age of 3.
3 岁之前的事情我们基本都不记得。
And this phenomenon is so widespread and well-documented it has a name.
这种现象太普遍且证据充足,因此它还有一个名字。
It is called child amnesia and it was first documented in 1893.
它被称为儿童健忘症,而且在 1893 年文献中首次记载。
As I said, this phenomenon refers to the adults not being able to remember the childhood incidents.
正如我刚才所说,这种现象指的是成年人不能够想起孩子的事情。
It's not children trying to remember events from last month or last years.
而不是说儿童试图回忆上个月或者是过去几年的事情。
Of course you follow that if you can't remember incidents as your child, you probably won't remember as an adult.
当然了,如果说你们小时候也记不得,长大后就更不能记得了。
OK, so…why is this? What is the reason from the child amnesia?
那么,为什么会这样呢?儿童健忘症的原因是什么呢?
Well, once a popular explanation was that child memories are always repressed and memories are disturbing so that is adults we keep them in barricade.
曾经一个流行的解释是儿童的记忆受到抑制和干扰,因为我们成年后回忆起来会有障碍。
And so we can recall them and this is based on…well it's not base on, on, on… the kind of self-research in the lab testing we want to talk about today.
我们能够回忆起来这些事情,但是要建立在…不能建立在…我们今天要讲的是在实验室中自主研发的测试。
So let's put that explanation aside and concentrate on just two.
我们先不讲这个,就集中说说以下两点。
OK? It could be that as children we do form memories of things prior to age of 3, but forget as we get grew older, let's one explanation.
可能我们在 3 岁之前的阶段确实也形成了记忆,但是在我们长大的过程中就慢慢遗忘了,这是一种解释。
Another possibility is that children younger than 3 lack some cognitive capacity for memory.
还有一种可能就是 3 岁以下的孩子缺乏记忆认知能力。
And that idea, that children are unable to form memories that have been the dominant belief psychology for the past 100 years.
而在过去的 100 年中,这种儿童不能形成记忆的想法,一直在心理学界获得广泛认可。
And this idea is very much tied to things, the theory of Jean Piaget and also to language development in children.
这种想法和事物与让·皮亚杰的理论以及孩子们语言的发展都有很大关联。
So PRJ's theory of cognitive development-PRJ's suggested that because they don't have language, children younger than 18-24 months leave in the here and now that is they lack the mean to symbolic represent object, and events, that will not physically presented.
让·皮亚杰提出由于 18-24 个月以下的孩子不会说话,那么就缺乏表示物体,以及那些无法用实体呈现的事件的记忆符号。
Everybody get that?
大家都明白了吗?
PRJ proposed that young children don't have way to represent things that aren't wide in front of them.
让·皮亚杰提出儿童没有办法呈现那些并没有展现在他们面前的事物。
That's what language does, right?
这就是语言的功能了,对吗?
Words represent things, ideas.
词汇可以形容事物、想法。
Once language started to develop for about age 2, they do has a system for symbolic representation and can talk about things which are not in there in immediate environment including the past.
一旦语言在儿童 2 岁左右开始发育的时候,他们就有了能一套符号系统,而且能立即说出不在场的东西,也包括过去的事物。
Of course he didn't claim that infants don't have any sort of memory it is acknowledged that they can recognize some stimuli, like faces.
当然他没有说婴儿没有任何记忆,大家都知道婴儿可以认知一些刺激物体,如人的长相。
And for many years this model were very much in favors in psychology, even though memory tests were never performed on young children.
这种模式在心理学界一直都被广泛认可,尽管没有在孩子身上进行过任何试验。
Well, finally in the 1980s, study was done.
在 20 世纪 80 年代,研究终于结束了。
And this study show that very young children under age of 2 do have capacity for recall.
研究显示 2 岁一下的孩童有回忆的能力。
Now if we children cannot talk, how was the recall tested?
既然孩子那时候还不能说话,那么试验是怎么进行的呢?
Well, that is a good question, since the capacity for recall has always been linked with the ability to talk.
这是个好问题,因为回忆的能力总是与语言能力相关联。
So the researcher set up an experiment using imitation based texts.
所以研究者就用模拟测试进行了实验。
The adults use probable toys or other objects to demonstrate action that has 2 steps.
成人用适当的玩具或者其他的物体来进行演示,包括两个步骤。
The children were asked to imitate the steps immediately and then he again after lays off one or month.
要求孩子们立即来模仿这些步骤,然后过了一个多月,
And even after delay, the children could…couldn't call or replicate the action, the objects they used, and the steps involved and the order of the steps.
甚至是更久,孩子们就不能想起来并展示了,包括使用的物体、演示的步骤及顺序。
Even children young is 9 months, now, test showed that there was a faster way of forgetting among the youngest children but most importantly it shows that the development of the recall did not depend on language development.
实验证明,现在甚至是 9 个月大的孩子也有种更快的遗忘方式,但更重要的是,实验显示儿童不是根据语言发育来回忆的。
And that was the importance finding.
但是还有一项重大的发现,
I guess I should add that the findings, don't say there was no connection between the development of language and memory. There are some of evidence that are being able to talk about the event does lead to having a strong memory of that event.
我想我该提及一下,不能说语言发育和记忆没有关联。有证据显示,有能力去讲一个事件会加强记忆。
But that does not seem the real issue here. So, back to our question about the cause of the childhood amnesia, well, there is something called the rate of forgetting.
但是问题并不在这儿。好了,再回到儿童健忘症的缘由这个话题上来,有一种说法叫遗忘率。
And childhood amnesia may reflect high rate of forgetting, in other words, children under the age of 3 do form memories and do so without language.
儿童健忘症可能就是遗忘率的一种体现。换言之,三岁以下的孩子能够形成记忆,而且与语言没有关系。
But they forget the memories at a fast rate, probably faster than adults do.
但是他们遗忘的速度很快,很可能比成人快。
Researcher has set standards….sort of unexpected rate of forgetting, but that expected rate was set based on the tests done on the adults.
研究人员设立了一个标准,一种意料之外的遗忘率,但是我们能想到的遗忘率是基于成人测试基础上形成的。
So what is the rate of forgetting for children under the age of 3?
那么三岁以下的孩子的遗忘率是多少呢?
We expected to be high, but the tests disproved these really haven't been done yet.
我们认为会很高,但能够反驳这个观点的测试目前还没有进行过。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
amnesia [æm'ni:zjə]

想一想再看

n. 健忘症,记忆缺失

联想记忆
environment [in'vaiərənmənt]

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n. 环境,外界

 
imitate ['imiteit]

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vt. 仿制,仿造,模仿,仿效

 
evidence ['evidəns]

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n. 根据,证据
v. 证实,证明

联想记忆
base [beis]

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n. 基底,基础,底部,基线,基数,(棒球)垒,[化]碱

 
unexpected ['ʌnik'spektid]

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adj. 想不到的,意外的

 
concentrate ['kɔnsntreit]

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v. 集中,专心,浓缩
n. 浓缩物

联想记忆
explanation [.eksplə'neiʃən]

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n. 解释,说明

 
widespread ['waidspred]

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adj. 分布(或散布)广的,普遍的

 
popular ['pɔpjulə]

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adj. 流行的,大众的,通俗的,受欢迎的

联想记忆

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