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托福TPO-11 Lecture 2

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Narrator:Listen to part of a lecture in an Architecture Class.

独白:听下面一段关于建筑学的讲座。
Professor:Today, we are taking a little detour from the grand styles of public architecture we've been studying to look at residential architectures in the United States.
教授:今天,我们要从之前已经探讨的公共建筑总体风格上稍微背离一点,来看看美国的居民建筑。
Since this is something we can all identify with, I think it will help us see the relationship between the function of a structure and its style or form.
因为这是一个我们都熟悉的话题,我想这会帮助我们理解建筑的功能和风格形式之间的关系。
This has been an ongoing theme in our discussion, and we will be getting back to it just a moment.
这是我们一直进行讨论的题目,稍后我们会回到这个话题。
But before we get started, I want you to take a moment to think:
但在开始之前,我希望你们可以进行思考:
does anyone know what the single most popular style for a house in the United States is today? Bob?
有人知道美国最流行的建筑风格是什么吗?鲍勃怎么看?
Student 1:"I bet it is the ranch-style house."
学生 1:我猜是大农场住宅风格的房子。
Professor:"Well, in this area, probably. But aren't we typical? Yes, Sue."
教授:嗯,在这个区域,大概是。但是是典型的吗?好,这位同学请讲。
Student 2:"How about the kind of house my grandparents live in? They call it a Cape Cod.
学生 2:我祖父母住的房子怎么样?他们叫它科徳角。
Professor:That's the one.
教授:就是它。
Here is a drawing of what we consider of a classic Cape Cod house.
这是我们认为典型科德角式住宅的图片。
These days, you see this style all over the United States.
在今天,我们看到全美国都有这种住宅。
But it first showed up in U.S. northeast, in the New England region, around the late1600s.
但它最先在大约在十七世纪在新英格兰地区美国东北部出现。
For those of you who don't know the northeast costal region, Cape Cod is a peninsula, a narrow strip of land that jets out into the Atlantic,
对于你们不了解东北沿海地区的人而言,科德角是一个半岛,一个延伸到大西洋的窄条。
and so many houses in this particular style were built on Cape Cod, that the name of the place became the name of the style.
很多这种风格的房子被建在科德角,所以地名成为了建筑的名称。
Now why did the Cape Cod style house become so popular in the northeast?
为什么科徳角式房屋在东北部这么受欢迎?
Well, one reason is that it's a great example of form following function.We've talked about this design principle a lot about form following function.
原因之一是我们曾经多次谈论过这种结构遵从功能的准则。
And what did we say it's meant?
当时我们说这是什么意思?
Someone give me an application of this principle.
有人能给我举个例子说明,这个准则是如何生效的?
What did this concept that form should follow function?
结构遵从功能的概念究竟是什么?
How would it be applied to housing design?
在房屋设计中是如何运用的?
Student 2:Well, if it means the design of the building, it should be based on the needs of people who use it.
学生 2:嗯,如果是房屋设计,它应该是基于人们的需求。
Then, well, the architect has to be very practical to think about the people who actually be living in the house or working in the office building, whatever, so for the architect, it's all about users not about showing off how creative you can be.
那么,设计师就应该尤其考虑那些住在房子里,或在房子里工作的人,或随便什么人,对于设计师来说,用户是最重要的,而不是炫耀自己有多么有创造力。
Professor:Good, of course, for a Cape Cod house, it might be even more accurate to say that form also follows climate.
教授:很好,对于科徳角式住宅,更准确地说,还考虑到了气候。
Who knows what the climate like on Cape Cod?
谁知道柯德角的气候?
Student 1:Cold in the winter…
学生 1:冬天很冷...
Student 2:And whenever I visit my grandparents, it's really wet.
学生 2:而且每次我去探望祖父母,都很潮湿。
It's usually either raining or snowing or foggy and windy, too.
那里不是下雨就是下雪就是雾蒙蒙的,还有风。
I guess because it's so exposed to the ocean?
我猜有可能是科徳角太暴露在海洋的原因?
Professor:That's right.
教授:对的。
So take another look at this drawing, and you can image how this design might be particularly helpful in that kind of climate.
那再看一下这幅图,你就可以想象这种设计如何在这种天气中起作用。
Notice how the house is fairly low to the ground.
注意这座房屋有多接近地面。
This relatively low compact structure helps the house withstand the strong winds blowing off the ocean.
这种低矮结实的房屋结构有助于房屋承受海洋刮来的强风。
And look at the slope of the roof, the steep angle helps keep off all that rain and snow that accumulates in the winter.
再看看屋顶的斜度,陡峭的角度有使得雨水和雪不在房顶堆积。
Another thing, Cape Cod houses usually face south to take advantage of the sun's warm through the windows.
还有,科徳角式房屋通常面向南,借助太阳光透过窗子使屋子暖和。
That's helpful in winter.
这在冬天起了很大作用。
Now what can you tell me about the chimney, about its location.
现在,你能从烟囱的位置看出什么?
Student 2:Well, it's in the middle. Because, does that have something to do with heating the houses?
学生 2:嗯,它在中间。因为…这跟加热房屋有关系吗?
I mean since the heat never has to travel very far.
我的意思是,因为这样热气就不用穿过太长的距离。
Student 1:That means you can heat the house more efficiently, right?
学生 1:那意味着更有效地给房屋供暖,对吗?
Professor:Exactly, now see how the house has very little exterior decoration, that's also typical of early Cape Cod houses.
教授:正是如此。看看这座房屋的外部装饰多么有限,这也是典型的科德角式房屋的特点。
The wind was one reason, nothing sticking out might blow away in the harsh weather,
风是其中的理由之一,任何支出来的东西都可能被大风吹走。
but there was probably another reason, not related to the climate,
但还有其他原因,跟气候无关的,
more reflection of a rural New England society back then,
更关系到当时新英格兰乡村地区的状况。
you see Cape Cod houses were not built in the big cities, where all the rich people lived back then.
科徳角房屋并不是建在大城市里的,那儿是富人住的地方。
These were the modest dwellings the people who built them simply couldn't afford lots of expensive decorated details.
这是一些经济拮据的人建的,他们没有足够的钱去点缀房屋。
But that was more than just matter of money.
但这不仅仅关系到钱。
In these rural areas, people depended on each other for survival.
在这些乡下地区,人们依赖对方而生存。
Neighbors had to help and supported each other in the difficult environment, so you didn't want to appear to be showing off.
在这种艰难的环境里,邻里之间互相帮助支持。所以你可能不想要太过炫耀。
You wanted to avoid anything that might set you apart from your neighbors, the same people you might need to help you someday.
你想要竭尽所能不做任何有可能损坏你跟你邻居关系的事情,因为这些人有些一天会帮到你。
So all these help to create an attitude of conformity in the community, and you can see why a modest, a very plain style would become so widely imitated throughout rural New England.
所以所有人都想创造一种一致的、团结的态度,这样你就看到了一种朴素的、非常普普通通的房屋风格在新英格兰地区为什么被大量模仿。
Student 2:It is plain, but you know it's nice looking.
学生 2:它很普通,可你知道,看上去还不错。
Professor:Good point,
教授:说得好。
and in fact it's precisely that as aesthetic appeal, the…the purity, the nearly perfect proportion of the houses…
事实上,确切来说它富有美感,这种纯正得几乎比例完美的房子。
that's another reason for the cape cod enduring popularity even in the places where the climate was so mild, it's functional design doesn't matter.
这也是为什么科徳角房屋即便在气候温和,不需要考虑功能性的地方依然受欢迎。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
slope [sləup]

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n. 倾斜,斜坡,斜面,斜线,斜率
vt. 使

 
aesthetic [i:s'θetik]

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adj. 美学的,审美的,有美感的
n. (复

 
plain [plein]

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n. 平原,草原
adj. 清楚的,坦白的,简

 
strip [strip]

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n. 长条,条状,脱衣舞
v. 脱衣,剥夺,剥

联想记忆
functional ['fʌŋkʃənəl]

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adj. 功能的,有功能的,实用的

 
peninsula [pi'ninsjulə]

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n. 半岛

联想记忆
classic ['klæsik]

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n. 古典作品,杰作,第一流艺术家
adj.

 
popular ['pɔpjulə]

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adj. 流行的,大众的,通俗的,受欢迎的

联想记忆
principle ['prinsəpl]

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n. 原则,原理,主义,信念

 
appeal [ə'pi:l]

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n. 恳求,上诉,吸引力
n. 诉诸裁决

联想记忆

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