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托福TPO-12 Lecture 3

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Professor:The word opera means work, actually it means works.

教授:歌剧一词的意思其实是作品。
It's the plural of the word opus from the Latin.
实际上,它的意思是很多作品,是拉丁语中opus的复数形式。
And in Italian it refers in general to works of art.
在意大利语中,它总体指的就是艺术作品。
Opera Lyric or lyric of opera refers to what we think of as opera, the musical drama.
歌剧歌词或者歌剧指的就是我们说的歌剧,一音乐戏剧。
Opera was commonplace in Italy for almost thousands of years before it became commercial as a venture.
上千年了,歌剧在意大利一直都很普通,直到它作为一种行当被商业化了。
And during those years, several things happened primarily linguistic or thematic and both involving secularization.
而在那几年,一些事情发生了,主要是语言和主题的变化,而且两者都涉及到了世俗化的过程。
Musical drama started in the churches.
歌剧是从教堂里发源来的。
It was an educational tool.
它是一种教育工具,
It was used primarily as a vehicle for teaching religion and was generally presented in the Latin,
用来教授宗教,而且多数是由拉丁语写成的。
the language of the Christian Church which had considerable influence in Italy at that time.
拉丁语是教堂使用的语言,而且在意大利影响很广。
But the language of everyday life was evolving in European at a certain point in the middle ages it was really only merchants, Socratics and clergy who can deal with Latin.
但欧洲民间的日常用语在演变,在中世纪的某段时间,真的只有贵族、商人和神职人员才会拉丁文。
The vast majority of the population used their own regional vernacular in all aspects to their lives.
在生活的大多数时间里,大多数人都会用地方语言。
And so in what is now Italy, operas quit being presented in Latin and started being presented in Italian.
所以在意大利,歌剧不再用拉丁文,而开始使用意大利语。
And once that happened, the themes of the opera presentations also started to change.
一旦这改变发生,歌剧表达的主题也开始发生了改变。
And musical drama moved from the church to the plaza right outside the church.
而且音乐剧从教堂搬到了教堂外面的广场上。
And the themes again, the themes changed.
还有就是主题,主题也变了。
And opera was no longer about teaching religion as it was about satire and about expressing the ideas of society your government without committing yourself to writing and risking imprisonment or persecution, or what have you.
歌剧不再是关于教授宗教,而是讽刺剧,关于社会还有你的政府,还不用担心因为书面上的东西而被扔进监狱或者受到迫害等等。
Opera, as we think of it, is of course a rather restive form.
歌剧,当我们想它的时候,其实是一个被复兴的艺术。
It is the melodious drama of ancient Greek theater, the term 'melodious drama' being shortened eventually to 'melodrama' because operas frequently are melodramatic, not to say unrealistic.
它是富有声调优美的一段戏剧,源自古希腊剧院。声调优美的戏剧被最终简化成了情节剧,因为歌剧往往是音乐性的,而且有戏剧情节的,甚至超现实的。
And the group that put the first operas together that we have today even, were, they were…well…it was a group of men that included GalloLeo's father Venchesil, and they met in Florence he and a group of friends of the counts of the party and they formed what is called the Camarola DayirBardy.
创作出第一部我们现在可知的戏剧的人们中,有一位是伽利略的父亲凡山杜他和一群朋友在佛罗伦萨碰面了。然后组建了一个叫做 Camarola Dayir Bardy的乐队。
And they took classical theater and reproduced it in the Renaissance's time.
他们将传统戏剧在文艺复兴时期重新演绎。
This…uh…this produced some of the operas that we have today.
这产生了一些我们现在看到的一些歌剧。
Now what happened in the following centuries is very simple.
那么,在接下来的几个世纪里发生的事情就很简单。
Opera originated in Italy but was not confined to Italy any more than the Italians were.
歌剧发源于意大利,但就像意大利人并不只被禁锢在意大利。
And so as the Italians migrated across Europe, they carried theater with them and opera specifically because it was an Italian form.
当意大利移民横跨欧洲,他们带来了戏剧,尤其是歌剧,因为它就是意大利特色的。
What happened is that the major divide in opera that endures today took place.
今天我们看到的歌剧的格局就在那时候形成了。
The French said opera auto-reflect the rhythm and Kevin of dramatic literature, bearing in mind that we are talking about the golden age in French literature.
法国人认为歌剧就应该反映戏剧文学的韵律性和节奏性,想想看我们讲的是黄金时代的法国,所以他们将音乐的重要性置于音韵优美的表达之后。
And so the music was secondary, if you will, to the dramatic Kevin of language, to the way the rhythm of language was used to express feeling and used to add drama and of course as a result instead of arias or solos, which would come to dominated Italian opera.
所以自然而然,与其像是意大利歌剧的主导风格—咏叹调和独唱,
The French relied on that what is the Italian called French Word 1 or French Word 2 in English. The lyrics were spoken, frequently to the accompany of a harpsichord.
法国人主要使用吟咏调,这种形式中,歌词通常被朗诵出来,伴有大提琴伴奏。
The French said you really cannot talk about real people who lived in opera and they relied on mythology to give them their characters and their plots, mythology, the past old traditions, the novels of chivalry or the epics of chivalry out of the middle Ages.
法国人认为,歌剧中不应该谈论普通人,所以他们在神话中寻找可以赋人物的性格和情节,从神话故事,过去的传统故事,骑士小说,中世纪的骑士史诗等等。
The Italian said, no this is a great historical tool and what a better way to educate the public about Neo or Attalla or any number of people than to put them into a play they can see and listen to.
可意大利人觉得,不,歌剧可是一个记录历史的好工具,可以通过看和听,来用来教授人们关于尼罗和匈奴王的功绩。
The English appropriated opera after the French.
英国人在法国人之后也接受了歌剧。
Opera came late to England because all theaters, public theaters were closed, of course, during their civil war.
歌剧进入英国很晚,因为所有的剧院,公共剧场都在内战中停业。
And it wasn't until the restoration in 1660 that public theaters again opened and opera took off.
直到 1660 的修复令才使得公共剧院重新开放,而歌剧随之进入了英国。
The English made a major adjustment to opera and exported what they had done to opera back to Italy.
英国人为意大利歌剧做出了进一步的改进,并将它们输入回了意大利。
So that you have this circle of musical influences, the Italians invented opera, the French adapted it, the English adopted it, and the Italians took it back.
所以你看到了音乐互相影响而形成的环状效应。意大利人发明了歌剧,法国人修改了它,英国人吸收了它,而意大利人又收回了歌剧。
It came to America late and was considered to elites for the general public.
歌剧传进美国的时间较晚,并被看作是脱离大众的精英文化。
But Broadway musicals fulfilled a similar function for a great long while.
但百老汇的音乐剧在很长一段时间里扮演了相似的角色。
George Champon wrote about opera, "If an extraterrestrial being or two appear before us and say, what is your society like, what is this Earth thing all about, you could do worse than take that creature to an opera."
乔治?常盘在写关于歌剧时说如果一两个外星物种突然出现问我们:你的社会是什么样,地球到底是什么回事?你至少可以带着它去看歌剧。
Because opera does, after all, begin with a man and a woman and any motion.
因为歌剧确实,不管怎样,是由一个男人,一个女人及随便什么动作开始的。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
confined [kən'faind]

想一想再看

adj. 幽禁的;狭窄的;有限制的;在分娩中的 v. 限

联想记忆
melodious [mi'ləudiəs]

想一想再看

adj. 旋律美妙的,调子优美的,音乐性的

 
adjustment [ə'dʒʌstmənt]

想一想再看

n. 调整

 
population [.pɔpju'leiʃən]

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n. 人口 ,(全体)居民,人数

联想记忆
function ['fʌŋkʃən]

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n. 功能,函数,职务,重大聚会
vi. 运行

 
linguistic [liŋ'gwistik]

想一想再看

adj. 语言的,语言学的

 
rhythm ['riðəm,'riθəm]

想一想再看

n. 节奏,韵律,格律,节拍

 
melodramatic [,melədrə'mætik]

想一想再看

adj. 情节剧的;戏剧似的;夸张的

 
vehicle ['vi:ikl]

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n. 车辆,交通工具,手段,工具,传播媒介

联想记忆
lyric ['lirik]

想一想再看

adj. 抒情的
n. 抒情诗

联想记忆

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