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托福TPO-13 Lecture 1

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Narrator:Listen to the lecture in the city planning class.

独白:听下面一段城市规划课上的演讲。
Professor:In the last 15 years or so, many American cities have had difficulty in maintaining a successful retail environment.
教授:在过去的五十年里,很多美国城市在维持一个成功零售环境上经历了困难。
Business owners in the city centers or the downtown areas have experienced some financial losses, because of the city movement of the people out of the city and then into suburbs.
一些城中心的商人蒙受了损失,因为人流往往从城市流动到郊区。
In general, downtown areas, just don't have that many residential areas, not that many people live there.
总体来说,市中心的居住区域不多,没有多少人居住在此。
So what did city planners decide to do about it?
那么城市规划者打算对此做些什么呢?
While, one way they've came up with the some ways to attract more people, to shop downtown was by creating pedestrian malls.
一个办法就是想办法吸引更多人,对于城中心的商店来说,就是建造步行街。
Now, what is a pedestrian mall?
那么,什么是步行街呢?
It's a pretty simple concept really, it is essentially an outdoor shopping area designed just for people on foot.
其实这是个简单的概念,它基本上就是一个可供人步行游览的开放式购物区域。
And…well, unlike many of other shopping malls that are built in suburb nowadays, these pedestrian malls are typically located in the downtown areas of the city.
而且?不同于现在郊区的购物商场,这些步行街典型地坐落于城中心地区。
And there are features like white sidewalks, comfortable outdoor sitting and maybe even fountains-UN…you know art.
而且有一些标志性的特点,比如宽敞的人行道,舒服的户外座椅,甚至喷泉? 你知道,还有艺术品。
There are variations on this model of course,
当然,这个模型还会出现一些变化。
but the common denominators are always an idea of creating a shopping space that will get people to shop in the city without needing their cars.
但最基本的宗旨还是让人们可以在城里面步行着购物,而不需要他们的车。
So I am sure you can see how heavy an area that off-limits to automobile traffic would be ideal for heavily populated city where, well, the streets will otherwise be bustling with noise, unpleasant traffic congestion.
所以我想,你们可以看到一个不需要汽车停放的购物商场对于一个机动车数量众多的城市有多么重要;如果不这样的话,街道将被吵闹的汽车塞满。
Now the concept which originated in Europe was adopted by American city planners in the late 1950s.
这个概念发源于欧洲,19 世纪 50 年代被美国人吸取过来,
And since then, a number of Unites States' cities have created the pedestrian malls.
自从那时一些美国城市建造了步行街。
And many of them have been highly successful.
很多城市因此获得了成功。
So what does city planner learn about making these malls succeed?
为了取得这种成功,城市规划者在建造步行街时需要考虑哪些因素?
Well, there are two critical factors to consider when creating the pedestrian malls-location and design.
主要因素有两个,地理位置和设计,
Both of which are equally important.
二者同等重要。
Now let's start with location.
首先讲讲地理位置,
In choosing a specific location for pedestrian mall, there are in fact two considerations.
要选一个位置,需要考虑两个因素,
Proximity to potential customers, UN…that's we'll call it customer base and accessibility to public transportation which we will get into just a moment.
靠近客户的可能性,也就是我们说的客户基础,以及对于公共交通的可获得性,这个我们待会儿再说。
Now, for a customer base, the most obvious example would be a large office building since the employees could theoretically go shopping after work or during their lunch hour, right?
首先,讲讲客户基础。最好的例子是一个大的写字楼,因为理论上工作的人可以下班后去逛街,或者午休的时候去逛街,对吗?
Another really good example is convention center which typically has a hotel and large meeting spaces to draw visitors to the city for major business conferences and events.
还有一个例子是会议中心,它通常伴有旅店,和宽敞的会议场地,为的就是吸引人们来到这座城市开展主要的商业会议和各种大事。
But ideally, the pedestrian malls will be used by local residents, not just people working in the city or visiting the area.
但理想状况是,步行街针对的是当地的居民,而不仅仅是在该城市工作的人或在某区域游玩的游客。
So that's where access to the public transportation comes in, if… if the designer planned to locate the malls near a central transportation hub, like bus terminal, a major train, a subway station or they work with city officials to create sufficient parking areas, not too far from the mall, which make sense because people can drive into the mall area or then they need easy access to it.
所以,这就是公共交通流入的途径。如果设计者计划将购物中心放在中心交通枢纽处,像巴士终点站,主要的火车或地铁站,或者和城市官员协力创造足够的停车场,地点离购物中心不远,这就有意义了,因为人们可以把车开到购物区或者是因为他们可以使用便于进出的通道。
OK, so that's location, but what about design?
好了,这就是选址的问题,那么设计呢?
Well, design doesn't necessarily include things like sculptures or decorative walkways or… or even eye catching window displays, you know art.
嗯,设计并不一定包括像雕塑或装饰了的人行道或甚至是引人注目的橱窗陈列,你们知道,艺术。
Although I bet the first to admen those things are ascetically appealing, however, visually pleasing sights, while there are not a part of pedestrian malls design that matter than most.
尽管我一开始承认这些东西外面看起来吸引人,但是不管景色多么宜人,这些东西也不是步行街设计的一部分,步行街的设计比很多其他东西都要重要。
The key consideration is a compact and convenient layout.
要考虑的关键的地方是其布局,即紧凑又便利。
One which allows pedestrians to walk from one end of the mall to the other in just a few minutes, so you can get the major stores, restaurants and other central places without having to take more than one or two turns.
步行街的设计要让行人能再几分钟内从一端走到另一端,这样你就能够顺利到达主要商店,餐馆,和其他中心地带,而不用拐多几个弯。
Now, this takes a careful uncreative planning.
这样,设计必须谨慎而又富有创意。
But now what if one ingredient to this planning recipe is missing?
然而,如果设计中缺少某一元素会怎样呢?
There could quite be possibly long lasting effects.
这很可能会造成长久的影响。
And I think a good example is pedestrian mall in the Louisville Kentucky for instance.
而我想,肯塔基州路易斯维尔的步行街就是一个很好的例子。
Now when the Louisville mall was built, it has lots of visual appeal, it was attractively designed, right in the small part of downtown and it pretty much possessed other design elements for success.
当该步行街建起来的时候,视觉效果具有很大的吸引力,设计上颇引人注目。它就坐落在城镇的一小块地上,彰显着其他成功的设计元素。
But now, here is my point about location comes into play.
而现在,我要讲的点是关于其地理位置的作用。
There wasn't a convention center around to help joining visitors and was the only nearby hotel eventually closed down for that same reason.
该步行街附近没有会议中心,不能汇集各地的游客,附近唯一的酒店也是因为同一原因而倒闭。
Well, you can imagine how these malls affected local and pedestrian malls business owners. Sort of what was we called it a chain reaction.
嗯,你可以想象到这些步行街是怎么影响到当地的步行街商户的。
It wasn't until a convention center and a parking garage was built about decades later that malls started to be successful.
有点像我们说的连锁反应。直到几十年后,这里建起了一座会议中心和一座停车场,该步行街才开始成功营业。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
critical ['kritikəl]

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adj. 批评的,决定性的,危险的,挑剔的
a

 
retail ['ri:teil]

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n. 零售
vt. 零售,传述
ad

 
affected [ə'fektid]

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adj. 受影响的,受感动的,受疾病侵袭的 adj. 做

联想记忆
proximity [prɔk'simiti]

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n. 接近,亲近

 
convenient [kən'vi:njənt]

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adj. 方便的,便利的

 
consideration [kənsidə'reiʃən]

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n. 考虑,体贴,考虑因素,敬重,意见

 
appealing [ə'pi:liŋ]

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adj. 引起兴趣的,动人的

 
narrator [næ'reitə]

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n. 叙述者,讲解员

 
recipe ['resipi]

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n. 食谱,秘诀,药方

联想记忆
minutes ['minits]

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n. 会议记录,(复数)分钟

 

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