Narrator:Listen to the lecture in the city planning class.
Professor:In the last 15 years or so, many American cities have had difficulty in maintaining a successful retail environment.
Business owners in the city centers or the downtown areas have experienced some financial losses, because of the city movement of the people out of the city and then into suburbs.
In general, downtown areas, just don't have that many residential areas, not that many people live there.
So what did city planners decide to do about it?
While, one way they've came up with the some ways to attract more people, to shop downtown was by creating pedestrian malls.
Now, what is a pedestrian mall?
It's a pretty simple concept really, it is essentially an outdoor shopping area designed just for people on foot.
And…well, unlike many of other shopping malls that are built in suburb nowadays, these pedestrian malls are typically located in the downtown areas of the city.
And there are features like white sidewalks, comfortable outdoor sitting and maybe even fountains-UN…you know art.
There are variations on this model of course,
but the common denominators are always an idea of creating a shopping space that will get people to shop in the city without needing their cars.
So I am sure you can see how heavy an area that off-limits to automobile traffic would be ideal for heavily populated city where, well, the streets will otherwise be bustling with noise, unpleasant traffic congestion.
Now the concept which originated in Europe was adopted by American city planners in the late 1950s.
这个概念发源于欧洲，19 世纪 50 年代被美国人吸取过来，
And since then, a number of Unites States' cities have created the pedestrian malls.
And many of them have been highly successful.
So what does city planner learn about making these malls succeed?
Well, there are two critical factors to consider when creating the pedestrian malls-location and design.
Both of which are equally important.
Now let's start with location.
In choosing a specific location for pedestrian mall, there are in fact two considerations.
Proximity to potential customers, UN…that's we'll call it customer base and accessibility to public transportation which we will get into just a moment.
Now, for a customer base, the most obvious example would be a large office building since the employees could theoretically go shopping after work or during their lunch hour, right?
Another really good example is convention center which typically has a hotel and large meeting spaces to draw visitors to the city for major business conferences and events.
But ideally, the pedestrian malls will be used by local residents, not just people working in the city or visiting the area.
So that's where access to the public transportation comes in, if… if the designer planned to locate the malls near a central transportation hub, like bus terminal, a major train, a subway station or they work with city officials to create sufficient parking areas, not too far from the mall, which make sense because people can drive into the mall area or then they need easy access to it.
OK, so that's location, but what about design?
Well, design doesn't necessarily include things like sculptures or decorative walkways or… or even eye catching window displays, you know art.
Although I bet the first to admen those things are ascetically appealing, however, visually pleasing sights, while there are not a part of pedestrian malls design that matter than most.
The key consideration is a compact and convenient layout.
One which allows pedestrians to walk from one end of the mall to the other in just a few minutes, so you can get the major stores, restaurants and other central places without having to take more than one or two turns.
Now, this takes a careful uncreative planning.
But now what if one ingredient to this planning recipe is missing?
There could quite be possibly long lasting effects.
And I think a good example is pedestrian mall in the Louisville Kentucky for instance.
Now when the Louisville mall was built, it has lots of visual appeal, it was attractively designed, right in the small part of downtown and it pretty much possessed other design elements for success.
But now, here is my point about location comes into play.
There wasn't a convention center around to help joining visitors and was the only nearby hotel eventually closed down for that same reason.
Well, you can imagine how these malls affected local and pedestrian malls business owners. Sort of what was we called it a chain reaction.
It wasn't until a convention center and a parking garage was built about decades later that malls started to be successful.