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托福TPO-14 Lecture 1

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Narrator:Listen to part of a lecture in a psychology class

独白:听下面一段心理学课的演讲。
Professor:We've said that the term Cognition refers to mental states like:
教授:我们已经说过,认知力指的是这样的精神状态:
knowing and believing, and to mental processes that we use to arrive at those states.
熟悉某事并相信它确实存在,精神层面上我们曾经达到这样的状态。
So for example, reasoning is a cognitive process, so it's perception.
所以,比如说,推理是一种认知过程,这就是认识能力。
We use information that we perceive through our senses to help us make decisions to arrive at beliefs and so on.
我们通过感官获得信息,帮助我们做出决定抵达信念的彼岸等等。
And then there are memory and imagination which relate to the knowledge of things that happen in the past and may happen in the future.
然后,我们还有记忆力和想象力,这些都跟过去发生过的或未来可能发生的背景知识相关。
So perceiving, remembering, imagining are all internal mental processes that lead to knowing or believing.
因此,认识能力,记忆力和想象力,这些都是引导我们熟悉某事物并相信其存在的内在精神过程。
Yet, each of these processes has limitations, and can lead us to hold mistaken believes or make false predictions.
然而,每一个过程都有其局限性,可能会让我们产生错误的新年或做出错误的预测。
Take memory for example, maybe you have heard of studies in which people hear a list of related words.
比如记忆力,也许你们听过这样的一次研究,研究中人们听一列相关单词。
Ah…, let`s say a list of different kinds of fruit.
啊,就说一列不同种类的水果类单词。
After hearing this list, they are presented with several additional words.
在听了单词后,他们会说出一些附加的词汇。
In this case, we`ll say the additional words were blanket and cheery.
在这种情况下,我们会说到的附加的单词是blanket 毛毯和cheery 快乐的。
Neither of these words was on the original list, and, well, people will claim correctly that blanket was not on the original list, they'll also claim incorrectly that the word cheery was on the list.
这些词都没有在原先的单词表上出现过,而且,嗯,人们会准确的说到,blanket没有在原单词表上,他们也会错误得认为cheery就有在单词表上。
Most people are convinced they heard the word cheery on the original list.
大部分人确信他们听到了cheery这个单词。
Why do they make such a simple mistake?
为什么他们会犯这么简单的错误呢?
Well, we think because the words on the list were so closely related, the brain stored only the gist of what they heard.
我们认为原因是单词表上的单词都很相关。大脑会将我们听到的主旨信息储存起来。
For example, that all the items on the list were types of the fruit.
比如说,所有的单词表上的单词都是各种水果。
When we tap our memory, our brains often fill in details and quite often these details are actually false.
当我们回忆的时候,大脑经常会填补记忆的细节,而很多时候这些细节实际上是错误的。
We also see this fill-in phenomenon with perception.
我们也是通过认知能力捕获这些填补的现象。
Perception is the faculty that allows us to process information in the present as we take it via our senses.
认知能力是一种通过我们的感官允许我们在当下处理信息的能力。
Again, studies have shown that people will fill in information that they thought they perceived even when they didn`t.
研究再一次表明,大脑会填补一些他们没有获得而自己以为获得了的信息。
For example, experiments have been done where a person hears a sentence, but it is missing the word, that logically completes it.
比如说,在某些实验中,参加测试的人听到了一个句子,但没有捕捉到逻辑连接词。
They'll claim to hear that word even though it was never said.
他们会说听到了这个词,尽管根本就没有这个词。
So if I were to say…er…the sunrise is in the…and then fill to complete the sentence, people will often claim to have heard the word east.
所以如果我说,额,太阳从……升起,然后让大家填补完整句子,他们经常会说自己听到了东边这个词。
In cognitive psychology, we have a phrase for this kind of inaccurate filling in of details-it's called:A Blind Spot.
在认知心理学中,我们对此有一个词解释这种不准确的填补细节—它被称为盲点。
The term originally refers to the place in our eyes where the optic nerve connects the back of the eye to the brain.
该术语原本指的是我们眼睛里的某一部位,该部位的视神经将眼睛的背部链接到我们的大脑。
There are no photoreceptors in the area where the nerve connects to the eye.
然而我们全然不知,因为大脑填补了其认为属于图像的部分,
So that particular area of the eye is incapable of detecting images.
所以图像总是完整显示出来。
It produces A Blind Spot in our field vision. We are unaware of it, because the brain fills in what it thinks belongs in its image, so the picture always appears complete to us.
在神经连接眼睛的区域没有光感受器,所以眼睛的这一部位不能够检测到图像。这就使得我们的视野中出现盲点。
But the term blind spot has also taken on a more general meaning-it refers to people being unaware of a bias that may affect their judgment about the subject.
但是,盲点现在的所指范围已经扩大,它还指的是可能影响人们对某一事物进行判断的偏见而不为所知的状态。
And the same blind-spot phenomenon that affects memory and perception also affects imagination.
而相同的盲点现象不仅影响人们的记忆力和认识能力,还影响到想象力。
Imagination is a faculty that some people use to anticipate future events in their lives.
想象力是人们预测生活中未来会发生的事件的能力。
But the ease with which we imagine details can lead to unrealistic expectations and can bias our decisions.
然而由于我们能够自由想象各种细节,这便会导致不切实际的预测并左右我们的决定。
So…er…Peter, suppose I ask you to image a lunch salad, no problem, right?
那么,额,彼得,假设我让你想象一下午餐沙拉,没问题的,是吧?
But I bet you imagine specific ingredients.
但我猜你会想到的是具体的沙拉原料。
Did yours have tomatoes, Onion, Lettuce? Mine did?
有西红柿,洋葱和莴苣吗?我的呢?
Our brains fill in all sorts of details that might not be part of other people's image of a salad, which could lead to disappointment for us.
我们的脑袋会填补各种细节,这些细节可能不是其他人想象中的沙拉原料,这就会让我们失望了。
If the next time we order a salad in a restaurant, we have our imagined salad in mind, that's not necessarily what we'll get on our plate.
如果下次我们在饭馆点了沙拉,我们各自有自己想象的版本,但我们点到的沙拉不一定就是我们要的。
The problem is not that we imagine things, but that we assume what we've imagined is accurate.
问题不是我们想象这些东西,而是我们假设我们想的是对的。
We should be aware that our imagination has this built-in feature, the blind spot, which makes our predictions fall short of reality.
我们应该知道,想象力有这种内在特征,即盲区,这让我们的预期与现实不符。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
cognitive ['kɔgnitiv]

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adj. 认知的,认识的,有认识力的

 
disappointment [.disə'pɔintmənt]

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n. 失望,令人失望的人或事

 
logically ['lɔdʒikli]

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adv. 符合逻辑地,逻辑上地

 
judgment ['dʒʌdʒmənt]

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n. 裁判,宣告,该判决书

联想记忆
internal [in'tə:nəl]

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adj. 国内的,内在的,身体内部的

 
phenomenon [fi'nɔminən]

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n. 现象,迹象,(稀有)事件

联想记忆
related [ri'leitid]

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adj. 相关的,有亲属关系的

 
mental ['mentl]

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adj. 精神的,脑力的,精神错乱的
n. 精

联想记忆
bias ['baiəs]

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n. 偏见,斜纹
vt. 使偏心

联想记忆
narrator [næ'reitə]

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n. 叙述者,讲解员

 

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