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托福TPO-15 Lecture 1

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Narrator:Listen to part of a lecture in a psychology class.

独白:听下面一段心理学课的演讲
Professor:For decades, psychologists have been looking at our ability to perform tasks while other things are going on, how we are able to keep from being distracted and what the conditions for good concentration are.
教授:几十年来,心理学家们一直在观察我们在其他事情正在进行的时候,我们完成任务的能力,我们怎样能不被分散精力,什么样的环境有助于我们集中精神。
As long ago as 1982, researchers came up with something called the CFQ -the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire.
早在 1982 年,研究人员就想到了一个叫 CFO-认知失败的问卷调查。
This questionnaire asks people to rate themselves according to how often they get distracted in different situations, like h um ….. Forgetting to save a computer file because they had something else on their mind or missing a speed limit sign on the road. John?
这个调查问卷让人们在不同情形下受到不同程度的干扰来对自己进行评估,比如因为脑子中想别的事情就忘记了给电脑文件存档或者在路上错过了限速图标。乔恩?
John:I've lost my share of computer files, but not because I'm easily distracted. I just forget to save them.
乔恩:我也忘记过给电脑存档,但是不是因为我被分散精力了,而就是忘记存了。
Professor:And that's part of the problem with the CFQ.
教授:这也是 CFQ 的一部分问题所在。
It doesn't take other factors into account enough, like forgetfulness.
它没有能将其它的因素足够的考虑进来,如遗忘。
Plus you really can't say you are getting objective scientific results from a subjective questionnaire where people report on themselves.
另外你的确很难说能从人们对自己评估的主观问卷中得出客观的科学结论来。
So it's no surprise that someone attempted to design an objective way to measure distraction.
所以说有人试图设计一种客观的方法来测量注意力分散也是不足为奇的。
It's a simple computer game designed by a psychologist named, Nilli Lavie.
这是一个简单的电脑游戏,由一位叫做尼里拉威的心理学家所设计。
In Lavie's game, people watch as the letters N and X appear and disappear in a certain area on the computer screen.
在她的游戏中,人们在电脑屏幕上特定的区域中观看出现或者消失的字母 N 和 X。
Every time they see an N, they press one key, and every time they see an X they press another, except other letters also start appearing in the surrounding area of the screen with increasing frequency which creates a distraction and makes the task more difficult.
每次人们看见 N, 就按一个键,每次看见 X,就按另一个键,其它字母也一样在屏幕上附近的区域出现,并以出现的频率逐渐增长来使这项任务更加有难度。
Lavie observed that people's reaction time slowed as these distractions increased.
拉威观察到人们在分散注意力度增加后反应速度减慢了。
Student:Well that's not too surprising, isn't it?
学生:这倒不足为奇,不是吗?
Professor:No, it's not. It's the next part of the experiment that was surprising.
教授:是的。但是实验的下一个步骤却很让人惊奇。
When the difficulty really increased, when the screen filled up with letters, people got better at spotting the Xs and Ns.
当难度真正在增加时,人们却能看到 X和 N 了。
What do you think that happened?
你们觉得是怎么回事呢?
John:Well, maybe when we are really concentrating, we just don't perceive irrelevant information.
乔恩:嗯,可能是当我们精力集中特别的时候,我们就不去感知不相关的信息了。
Maybe we just don't take it in, you know?
可能是我们就没有吸收这些信息,你知道吧?
Professor:Yes, and that's one of the hypotheses that was proposed, that the brain simply doesn't admit the unimportant information.
教授:是的,这是提出的第一种设想,就是说大脑仅仅就是不接收不重要的信息。
The second hypothesis is that, yes, we do perceive everything, but the brain categorizes the information, and whatever is not relevant to what we are concentrating on gets treated as low priority.
第二种设想是,对,我们认知一切,但是大脑将信息分类,然后一切与我们专注的不相关的信息就不被重视了。
So Lavie did another experiment, designed to look at the ability to concentrate better in the face of increased difficulty.
因此拉威进行了另一项实验,就是为了看看在难度增加后,人们的专注能力。
This time she used brain scanning equipment to monitor activity in a certain part of the brain, the area called V5, which is part of the visual cortex, the part of our brains that processes visual stimuli.
这次她使用了大脑扫描一起来监控大脑某个特定区域的活动,这个区域叫做 V5,是视觉皮质的一部分,是人类大脑处理视觉刺激的部分。
V5 is the area of the visual cortex that's responsible for the sensation of movement.
V5 是视觉皮质用来感知运动的区域。
Once again, Lavie gave people a computer-based task to do.
拉威又一次进行了以电脑为基础的工作。
They have to distinguish between words in upper and lower-case letters or even harder, they had to count the number of syllables in different words.
人们需要辨别大小写字母,甚至更难,他们不得不数不同单词有多少个音节。
This time the distraction was a moving star field in the background, you know, where it looks like you are moving through space, passing stars.
这次的注意力分散方法是在背景上添置了一个移动的星场。看上去就像你在穿越太空,穿梭于星际一般。
Normally area of V5 would be stimulated as those moving stars are perceived and sure enough, Lavie found that during the task area of V5 was active, so people were aware of the moving star field.
当移动的星星被大脑认知后,一般 V5 区域会被刺激到,果然,拉威发现在这个任务进行中,V5 区域是活跃的,因此人们是能感知到移动的星场的。
That means people were not blocking out the distraction.
这就意味意味着人们没有把分散注意力的东西给屏蔽。
Student:So doesn't that mean that the first hypothesis you mentioned was wrong, the one that says we don't even perceive irrelevant information when we are concentrating?
学生:那这不就意味着刚才您提到的第一个设想是错误的吗?就是说我们在专注的时候不去认知不相关的信息?
Professor:Yes that's right, up to a point, but t that's not all.
教授:是的,说到点子上的。但不完全是。
Lavie also discovered that as she made the task more difficult, V5 became less active, so that means that now people weren't really noticing the star field at all.
拉威同样发现,在她将任务难度提高时,V5 变得不那么活跃了,也就是说人们其实并不注意星场了。
That was quite a surprise and it approved that the second hypothesis-that we do perceive everything all the time but the brain categorizes distractions differently, well, that wasn't true either.
这很出人意料,同时也证明了第二种设想,就是我们的确认知一切事物,但是大脑将分散注意力的东西进行不同的分类,呃,这种设想的不对。
Lavie thinks the solution lies in the brain's ability to accept or ignore visual information.
拉威认为解决方案在于大脑接受和忽略视觉信息的能力。
She thinks its capacity is limited.
她认为大脑的承载力有限。
It's like a highway.
就像高公路一样。
When there are too many cars, traffic is stopped.
当车很多的时候,交通就堵塞了。
No one can get on. So when the brain is loaded to capacity, no new distractions can be perceived.
没有人能在开到公路上来。那么当大脑的承载力已经满时,就不能再感知新的分散注意力的事物了。
Now that maybe the correct conclusion for visual distractions, but more research is needed to tell us how the brain deals with, say, the distractions of solving a math problem when we are hungry or when someone is singing in the next room.
既然视觉注意力分散可能有了正确的结论,我们也还需要更多的研究来告诉我们大脑是如何处理一些问题的,比如说,当我们在解决数学题时感到饥饿或者听到隔壁在唱歌。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
perform [pə'fɔ:m]

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v. 执行,运转,举行,表演

联想记忆
narrator [næ'reitə]

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n. 叙述者,讲解员

 
concentrate ['kɔnsntreit]

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v. 集中,专心,浓缩
n. 浓缩物

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capacity [kə'pæsiti]

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n. 能力,容量,容积; 资格,职位
adj.

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measure ['meʒə]

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n. 措施,办法,量度,尺寸
v. 测量,量

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relevant ['relivənt]

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adj. 相关的,切题的,中肯的

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objective [əb'dʒektiv]

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adj. 客观的,目标的
n. 目标,目的;

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reaction [ri'ækʃən]

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n. 反应,反作用力,化学反应

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solution [sə'lu:ʃən]

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n. 解答,解决办法,溶解,溶液

联想记忆
forgetfulness

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n. 健忘,忽略

 

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