手机APP下载

您现在的位置: 首页 > 托福 > 托福听力 > 托福听力真题听写 > 正文

托福TPO-16 Lecture 3

来源:可可英语 编辑:mike   VIP免费外教试听课 |  可可官方微信:ikekenet
 下载MP3到电脑  批量下载MP3和LRC到手机
加载中..

Narrator:Listen to a part of a lecture in a biology class.

独白:听下面一段生物学课上的演讲。
Professor:OK. Let's continue our discussion about animal behavior by talking about decisions that animals face, complex ones.
教授:好的,我们接着学习动物行为知识中动物如何做出决定的部分,今天我们将把重点放在那些比较很艰难的决定上。
Animals, even insects, carry out what look like very complex decision making processes.
动物,甚至包括昆虫在内,都似乎展示出一种非常复杂的决策过程。
The question is how. I mean no one really thinks that, say a bee goes through weighing the pros and cons of pollinating this flower or that flower.
不过,问题在于,这究竟是怎样一个过程呢?我的意思是,没有人真的会觉得,比如,一只蜜蜂会权衡支持或者反对到那朵花上干活的各种因素。
But then how do animals solve complex questions, questions that seem to require decision making.
但是另一方面,问题在于动物如何解决那些复杂的、似乎需要做出决定的问题。
The answer we'll propose of course is that their behavior is largely a matter of natural selection.
我们当然希望这些问题的答案能与自然选择拉上关系。
As an example, let's look at foraging behavior among beavers.
比如,我们来看看海狸的寻找食物有关的案例吧!
Beavers eat plants, mostly trees.
海狸是素食类动物,主要吃植物。
And they also use trees and tree branches to construct their homes in streams and lakes.
但同时他们又利用树木和树枝来建造自己的住所,
So when they do forage for food and for shelter materials, they have to leave their homes and go up on land where their main predators are.
依靠树木高度远眺陆地来躲避它们的主要猎食者。
So there are a number of choices that have to be made about foraging.
所以,它们在寻找食物时会面临很多选择。
So for example, um... they need to decide what kind of tree they should cut down.
比如说,嗯,它们必须得知道那些树是它们应该推倒的。
Some trees have higher nutritional value than others, and some are better for building material, and some are good for both... um...aspen trees.
一些树木的营养价值高于其他,一些树木更适合用来做建筑材料,而还有一些则两种用途都适合…嗯,比如杨树。
Beavers peel off the bark to eat and they also use the branches for building their shelters.
海狸们把杨树桩剥皮为食,用杨树枝修筑居所。
So aspens do double duty.
这样的话,杨树同时承担了两项任务。
But ash trees, beavers use ash trees only for construction. Another decision is when to forage for food.
但是灰树,只被用作建材。另一个涉及到决定的问题是海狸们何时去找食。
Should they go out during the daytime when it's hotter outside and they have to expend more energy, or at night when the weather is cooler but predators are more active?
它们应该在较为温热的白天,它们更富精力之时去呢,抑或是天气冷一些、捕食者更为活跃的晚上去?
Ok, but there are two more important issues, really the most central, the most important, OK?
好的,还有两个更重要的问题;它们真的很关键,很重要,记住了吧?
First, let's say a beaver could get the same amount of wood from a single large tree when it has lots of branches as it could get from three small trees.
第一,我们假设当一棵大树有许多枝干,所以海狸能够从它身上获得的木材总量相当于三棵小树,
Which should it choose?
这时,海狸会如何选择?
If it chooses one large tree, it' have to carry that large piece of wood back home, and lugging a big piece of wood 40 or 50 yards is hard work, takes a lot of energy.
如果它选择那棵大树,它就必须把大树上的大块头木材扛回窝里去,但把一大块木头移动 40 到 50 码是个不简单的活儿,会耗费大量的精力。
Of course it'll have to make only one trip to get the wood back to the water.
但这项决定的好处是,它只需要搬一次就能把木头搬到水里。
On the other hand, if it goes for three small trees instead, it will take less energy per tree to get the wood back home but it'll have to make three trips back and forth for the three trees.
不过,如果它选择了小树并且获得等量的木材呢,它把木头搬回去时可以节省一些力气,但需要来来回回走三次。
And presumably, the more often it wanders from home, the more it's likely to be exposed to predators.
并且,从理论上说,它在住所之外的地方活动越得多,就越有可能被捕食者发现。
So which is better, a single large tree or three small trees?
所以,哪一个选择更好呢?一棵大一些的树还是三棵小一些的树?
Another critical issue and it's related to the first, to the size issue, is how far from the water should it go to get trees.
另一个关键问题与第一个树木大小问题有关,即它们会在距离水多远的地方获得木材?
Should it be willing to travel a greater distance for a large tree, since it'll get so much wood from it?
在大树提供较多木头这一前提下,它们愿意走多远去找一棵大一些的树呢?
Beavers certainly go farther from the water to get an aspen tree than for an ash tree.
海狸们如果需要杨树的话,它们当然需要比获得灰树走得更远。
That reflects their relative values.
这种选择反映出了两种树木的相对价值。
But what about size?
但木头的尺寸呢?
Will it travel farther for a larger tree than it will for a smaller tree?
它们会为了一棵大树走得更远吗?
Now I would have thought the bigger the tree, the farther the beaver would be willing to travel for it.
现在,我们当然会觉得如果树木越大,海狸为了获得这些树木的木材而进行远距离走动的意愿也就越大。
That would make sense, right?
这的确能说通,是吧?
If you're going to travel far, make the trip worth it buy bringing back most wood possible.
假设你们要走一段较长的路的话,你们会选择一棵与这段距离价值最为匹配的树木。
But actually, the opposite is true.
但对于海狸而言,事实上,它们的选择恰恰与此相反。
Beavers will cut down only large trees that are close to the water.
海狸只会推倒距水较近的大树,
They will travel far only to cut down certain small trees that they can cut down quickly and drag back home quickly.
而跑到很远的地方去推倒一些较小的、能够很快拖回家的树木。
Generally, the farther they go from the water, the smaller the tree they will cut down.
一般而言,它们离家越远,它们推倒的树也就越小。
They're willing to make more trips to haul back less wood, which carries a greater risk of being exposed to predators.
它们宁愿多走几次,每次只带回较少的木料,尽管这样会使它们面对捕食者的几率增加。
So it looks as though beavers are less interested in minimizing their exposure to predators and more interested in saving energy when foraging for wood, which may also explain why beavers forage primarily during the evenings.
这样看来,海狸在找食物时,与减小遭遇捕食者几率相比,它们更愿意保存能量,这也就解释了它们为什么会选择晚上出来觅食。
OK, so why does their behavior indicate more of a concern with how much energy they expend than with being exposed to predators?
好的,那么,为什么它们这样的行为表明了比起暴露在捕食者面前,它们更在意能量的保持呢?
No one believes a beaver consciously weighs the pros and cons of each of these elements.
没有人会相信海狸有权衡利弊的能力。
The answer that some give is that their behavior has evolved over time.
有的人给出的答案是,它们的行为是与时俱进的。
It's been shaped by constraints over vast stretches of time, all of which comes down to the fact that the best foraging strategy for beavers isn't the one that yields the most food or wood.
这种行为模式是由于时间的较大跨度这种束缚造成的,一切因素都指向了这样一个事实:海狸们的最佳觅食策略不是以最大食物量或木材量为最终目的的,
It's the one that results in the most descendants, the most offspring.
而是以最大量繁衍后代这一结果为目的的。
So let's discuss how this idea works.
我们接下来讨论这项结论是如何解释事实的。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
construction [kən'strʌkʃən]

想一想再看

n. 建设,建造,结构,构造,建筑物

联想记忆
construct [kən'strʌkt]

想一想再看

vt. 构筑,建造
n. 构想

联想记忆
exposure [iks'pəuʒə]

想一想再看

n. 面临(困难),显露,暴露,揭露,曝光

 
vast [vɑ:st]

想一想再看

adj. 巨大的,广阔的
n. 浩瀚的太

 
willing ['wiliŋ]

想一想再看

adj. 愿意的,心甘情愿的

 
decision [di'siʒən]

想一想再看

n. 决定,决策

 
issue ['iʃju:]

想一想再看

n. 发行物,期刊号,争论点
vi. & vt

 
related [ri'leitid]

想一想再看

adj. 相关的,有亲属关系的

 
complex ['kɔmpleks]

想一想再看

adj. 复杂的,复合的,合成的
n. 复合体

联想记忆
narrator [næ'reitə]

想一想再看

n. 叙述者,讲解员

 

    阅读本文的人还阅读了:
  • 托福TPO-16 Lecture 2 2013-12-09
  • 托福TPO-16 Conversation 2 2013-12-10
  • 托福TPO-16 Lecture 4 2013-12-16
  • 托福TPO-17 Conversation 1 2013-12-17
  • 托福TPO-17 Lecture 1 2013-12-18
  • 新东方托福网络课程:试听更多托福网络课程>>

    关键字: TPO 托福 听写 训练 练习

    发布评论我来说2句

      可可英语官方微信(微信号:ikekenet)

      每天向大家推送短小精悍的英语学习资料.

      添加方式1.扫描上方可可官方微信二维码。
      添加方式2.搜索微信号ikekenet添加即可。