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托福TPO-16 Lecture 4

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Narrator:Listen to part of a lecture in an art history class.

独白:听下面艺术史课程上的演讲。
Professor:OK, now urn, a sort of paradigmatic art form of the Middle Ages was stained glass art.
教授:好的,现在的话,嗯,中世纪的一种典范的艺术形式就是宗教镶窗彩绘。
Stained glass of course is simply glass that has been colored and cut into pieces and re-assembled to form a picture or a decorative design.
这种玻璃彩绘当然就是指那种把喷涂了色彩的玻璃切分成小块再重新组装成画或者装饰物的艺术品。
To truly experience the beauty of this decorative glass you should see it with light passing through it, especially sunlight, which is why stained glass is usually used for windows.
要真正领略这种起装饰作用的彩色玻璃的美感,你就应该观察它被光透射时的样子。正是因为阳光透射时所产生的美感,这种玻璃一般都被用在窗户上。
But of course it has other uses, especially nowadays.
但它当然也会有别的用途,特别是现今。
Urn, anyway the art of making stained glass windows developed in Europe, urn, during the Middle Ages and was closely relate to church building.
嗯,不管怎样,镶窗玻璃彩绘发起于欧洲,嗯,时间是中世纪,并且和宗教建筑有很大关系。
In the early 1lOOs a church building method was developed that reduced the stress on the walls so more space could be used for window openings allowing for large and quite elaborate window designs.
12 世纪早期兴起的一种教堂修筑方法减小了墙壁的承重需求,使得墙面上有更多空间可以被做成窗户,这使得更大面积、更精细的窗口设计成为了可能。
Back then, the artists made their own glass, but first they came up with the design.
当时,艺术家们自己制造各自所用的玻璃,但先聚在一起谋划设计。
Paper was scarce and expensive, so typically they drew the design onto a white tabletop.
纸张那时稀有且昂贵,所以他们就把设计图画在一张白色桌布上。
They'd draw the principal outline but also outline the shape of each piece of glass to be used and indicate its color. Now in the window itself the pieces of glass would be held together by strips of lead.
他们不仅画出大致的轮廓,而且还会勾勒出每一块会被铅条拼在一起的小玻璃的形状。
So in the drawing the artists would also indicate the location of the lead strips. Then you could put a big piece of glass on the tabletop and see the design right through it and use it to guide the cutting of the glass into smaller pieces.
所以,在绘制的图纸中,艺术家们也会标明铅条的位置,然后才能把一大块玻璃放到这张桌布上,由此观察设计细节,并以之帮助把整块玻璃切分成许多小块。
Student:And the lead that was just to hold the pieces of glass together?
学生:同时铅条也会被塑造成一定形状,以便将切分出来的小玻璃片聚集在一起吗?
Professor:Well, lead is strong and flexible so it's ideal for joining pieces of glasses cut in different shapes and sizes.
教授:铅条既有硬度也有韧性,所以它是拼接各种形状、大小的玻璃片的理想材料。
But up to the 15th century the lead strips also helped create the design.
但是直到 15 世纪,铅条才被考虑成为设计因素和创新所在。
They were worked into the window as part of the composition.
它们成为了窗口的设计的一部分。
They were used to outline figures to show boundaries just like you might use solid lines in a pencil drawing.
它们被用作各种素材的轮廓线,就像你们在画铅笔画时外围的实心线。
Student:How did they get the color'? I mean how did they color the glass?
学生:玻璃画是怎么有颜色的?我的意思是,画家们是如何给玻璃画上色的呢?
Professor:Well up until the 16th century stained glass was colored during the glass making process itself.
教授:嗯,直到 16 世纪之前,玻璃画一直都是在玻璃的制造工艺中上色的。
You got specific colors by adding metallic compounds to the other glass making ingredients.
假如在炼制玻璃的配方中假如不同的金属混合物,我们就能获得不同颜色的玻璃。
So if you wanted red you added copper if you wanted green you added iron.
譬如,如果想要红色,我们就添加铜;如果要绿色,就添加铁。
You just added these compounds to the other ingredients that the glass was made of.
我们只需要在玻璃成分中加入这些物质就好。
Student:So each piece of glass is just one color?
学生:这样的话,每一片玻璃都只有一种颜色了?
Professor:Yes, at least up until the 16th century.
教授:是的,直到 16 世纪都是这样。
Then they started... urn.. .you started to get painted glass.
之后,艺术家们开始,嗯,开始用彩色玻璃。
Painted glass windows are still referred to as stained glass but the colors were actually painted directly onto clear glass after the glass was made.
和之前的玻璃一样,彩色玻璃窗名称没有发生变化,依旧被称作镶窗玻璃,但实际上制作工艺却不同了:在玻璃制造出来以后,各种颜色才会被喷涂上去。
So um with this kind of stained glass you could paint a piece of glass with more than one color.
嗯,这种镶窗玻璃可以使得每一小片玻璃上出现多种颜色。
Student:And with painted glass they still used the lead strips?
学生:彩色玻璃依旧用铅条框镶嵌在一起吗?
Professor:Yes, with really large windows it took more than one piece of glass, so you still needed lead strips to hold the pieces together.
教授:是的,那些大窗户要用到多块玻璃,所以我们还需要用铅条把这几块玻璃捆绑在一起。
But the painters actually tried to hide them.
但是画师们开始有意识地隐藏铅条了。
So it was different from before when the lead strips were part of the design.
所以,这和以前铅条被看成是设计的一部分又有些许差异了。
And it is different, because with painted glass the idea of light coming through to create the magical effect wasn't the focus any more.
并且这样的差异是由于彩色玻璃投入使用后通过光穿透玻璃来制造奇幻效果的设计思路淡出了人们的思维。
The paintwork was. And painted glass windows became very popular.
视觉效果的造成被转移到了喷漆过程中。
In the 19th century, people started using them in private houses and public buildings.
并且,到了 19 世纪,喷绘彩色玻璃变得非常普遍;人们开始用它来装饰私人住宅和其他公共建筑。
Unfortunately, many of the original stained glass windows were thought to be old fashioned and they were actually destroyed, replaced by painted glass.
不幸的是,许多被鉴定为最老式的镶窗玻璃如今已被损毁,或者替换成了喷绘彩色玻璃。
Student:They actually broke them? That showed good judgment, real foresight, didn't it?
学生:工作人员换玻璃时居然将这些老式玻璃打碎了吗?那难道意味着好的判断力,或者真正的远见,对吗?
Professor:Yes, if only they had known.
教授:是吧!要是当时能够明白就好了。
Uh, and it's not just that old stained glass is really valuable today, we lost possibly great artwork.
嗯,倒不是说这些老式的镶窗玻璃到今天会有多么有价值,而是我们可能因为它们的损毁失去伟大的艺术品。
But luckily there was a revival of the early techniques in the mid-1800s and artists went back to creating colored glass and using the lead strips in their designs.
不过,幸运的是,到了 19 世纪中期,早期的老式工艺有所复兴,艺术家们重新开始在设计中使用有色玻璃和铅条。
The effects are much more beautiful.
这些作品就漂亮得多。
In the 19th century Louis Tiffany came up with methods to create beautiful effects without having to paint the glass.
19 世纪时刘易斯·题芬妮发明了不用喷涂玻璃也能制造出奇妙视觉效果的方法。
He layered pieces of glass and used thin copper strips instead of lead, which let him make these really intricate flowery designs for stained glass, which are used in lamp shades.
他将几层玻璃叠放在一起,并用薄铜片替换了铅条,这使得他设计出花纹式样的镶窗玻璃成为可能。这种设计后来被用到了灯罩上,
You've heard of Tiffany lamp shades right?
你们都听说过题芬妮灯罩吧?
These of course took advantage of the new innovation of electric lighting.
这种设计当然利用了新发明出来的电灯的特性。
Electric light bulbs don't give quite the same effect as sunlight streaming through stained glass but it's close.
电灯泡发出的光与太阳光在通过镶窗玻璃时的效果不一样,但非常接近。
So layered glass, Tiffany glass, became very popular and still is today.
所以,层叠玻璃,题氏玻璃,逐渐变得非常普及了,直到今天依旧如此。
So let's look at some examples of different types of stained glass from each era.
那我们现在来看看几款来自不同时代的镶窗玻璃的图例吧!

重点单词   查看全部解释    
stress [stres]

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n. 紧张,压力
v. 强调,着重

 
outline ['əutlain]

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n. 轮廓,大纲
vt. 概述,画出轮廓

联想记忆
narrator [næ'reitə]

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n. 叙述者,讲解员

 
advantage [əd'vɑ:ntidʒ]

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n. 优势,有利条件
vt. 有利于

联想记忆
foresight ['fɔ:sait]

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n. 远见,深谋远虑

 
paradigmatic [.pærədig'mætik]

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adj. 作为示范的,典范的,词形变化的

 
elaborate [i'læbəreit]

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adj. 精细的,详尽的,精心的
v. 详细地

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composition [.kɔmpə'ziʃən]

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n. 作文,著作,组织,合成物,成份

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innovation [.inəu'veiʃən]

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n. 创新,革新

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judgment ['dʒʌdʒmənt]

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n. 裁判,宣告,该判决书

联想记忆

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