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经济学人:企业使命 复写本

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Business

商业报道
Companies and emissions
企业使命
Carbon copy
复写本
Some firms are preparing for a carbon price thatwould make a big difference
一些公司准备使用碳价 这将带来极大的转变
THE marketsfor CO2 have had about as good a year as Obamacare.
对二氧化碳的市场管理就如同奥巴马医改一样,实施已有一年了。
Europe'semissions-trading system, the world's largest carbon market, collapsed inApril.
欧洲碳排放交易系统作为全球最大的碳市场在今年四月崩溃。
Australia'snew government is killing off that country's fledgling market.
澳大利亚的新任政府正在遏止该国羽翼未丰的市场。
Yet companiesare blithe.
然而公司的经理人是很高兴的。

Internal carbon prices, the price of a tonne of CO2 used for planning purposes within firms, are becoming an increasingly common business tool.Perhaps firms know something that markets and politicians do not.

内部碳价作为用于公司内部计划目的的每吨二氧化碳的价格,正逐步成为一个常用的商业工具。或许企业的管理者知道与此相关的事物,而这却不在市场及政治家考虑的范围之内。
A study byCDP, a research group, asked large firms based or operating in America whattools they had for managing risk; 29 said they used an internal carbon price.
一个名为CDP的研究机构做了一项调查。该调查询问美国的公司或在美国经营的公司采用何种方式进行风险管理。29家公司表示他们用内部碳价进行风险管理。
Anecdotally, more apply such a price but did not mention it as a risk-mitigation measure.
更为让人惊奇的是,更多的公司运用这种策略却不称之为风险缓和措施。
This is the first economy-wide picture of how farinternal carbon pricing has gone and what it is used for.
这是第一幅展现内部碳价的作用的经济全景图。
The pricesrange from 6-7 a tonne of carbon dioxide at Microsoft to 60 a tonne at ExxonMobil.
每吨二氧化碳的定价根据公司不同而不同,从微软每吨6-7美元到埃克森美孚每吨60美元。
The span is not surprising, since companies use carbon prices for different purposes.
因为各个公司出于不同的目的制定碳价,这种差别并非惊人。
As a rule, those whose assets have a long productive lifeand which might be affected by green policies far into the future use higher prices than consumer-goods firms whose products aremainly influenced by current policies.
通常,那些生产较长寿命的设备的公司及在未来受环保政策影响的公司的碳价比那些主要受当前政策影响的消费品公司的高。
For manycompanies the aim is to prepare themselves for future environmentallegislation.
对许多公司来说,他们制定碳价的目的是为将来的应对环保立法做准备。
AEP, a power supplier, says it uses the system because it assumesa price of carbon…will begin in the US by roughly 2020.
美国电力公司这个电力供应商称他们利用该定价系统因为该公司人碳价…大约会在2020年在整个美国普及。
Delta AirLines says it uses a price for evaluating flights to Europein anticipation of compliance with EU ETS.
德尔塔航空公司称该公司利用定价机制评估飞往欧洲的航班,以期欧洲电信标准作出让步。
This is notthe only reason.
这并非唯一的原因。
Many firms use an internal carbon price to calculate the valueof future projects and to guide investment decisions.
许多公司利用内部碳价计算未来项目的价值从而指导投资决策。
Conoco Phillips, an oilfirm, requires that capital projects worth over 75m calculate the cost ofemissions based on a price of between 8 and 46 a tonne, depending on the lifeof the project.
康菲石油公司要求超过7500万美元的重要项目,必须根据项目的生命周期以每吨8-46美元的价格计算二氧化碳排放的成本。
The forecast value of a new oilfield would be: estimated outputmultiplied by the estimated future oil price minus development costs and carbonemissions.
估计一个新油田的价值将会是:预计产量+预估未来的油价-开发成本-碳排放成本。
Shell,another oil company, applies a carbon price—40 a tonne—to some currentoperations, not only future ones.
另一个石油公司英荷壳牌不仅仅对未来的项目,即便是当下运作的项目,也采取每吨40美元的碳价。
The idea is to identify tall poppies.
这一思想旨在确认最高碳价。
The price implies that existing projectscould spend up to 40 to reduce a tonne of CO2.
该定价暗示现有项目每减少一吨二氧化碳的排放需花费40美元。
Angus Gillespie, Shell's vice-president for CO2, says we applythe carbon price as much to spur mitigation as to quantify risks.
英荷壳牌负责二氧化碳事宜的副总裁安格斯?吉莱斯皮称我们运用碳价来尽可能地缓解量化危机。
Disney, amedia conglomerate, goes further still.
媒体企业集团迪斯尼公司走得更深更远。
It invests in schemes to offset orreduce carbon emissions and charges the cost of these to business units in proportionto how much they contribute to the company's overall emissions.
该公司投资商业计划来抵消或减少碳排放并将碳排放的成本按照它们占公司总排放量的比例纳入商业单位。
In effect, thisworks like an internal carbon tax.
实际上,这就相当于一种内部碳税。
Perhaps themost intriguing thing about the prices, though, is how high some of them are.
可能碳价最吸引人的地方就是它们能达到多高。
The market price of carbon is 4.90 per tonne of CO2 in the EU, 11.50in California.
每吨二氧化碳排放的市场价在欧洲是4.9欧元,加利福尼亚是11.5美元。
Big oil companies charge 34 or more. That is closer to the social cost ofcarbon—the damage from an extra tonne of CO2—than to the market price.
大型石油公司定价为34美元或更多。这比市场碳价更接近社会碳成本—一吨碳导致的破坏。
America'sadministration recently estimated the social cost at 37 a tonne.
美国行政机构近期估计社会碳成本是每吨37美元。
These priceschange behaviour.
这些定价改变人们的行为。
A huge amount of attention is paid to government action.
人们更加重视政府的行动。
But the sort of carbon price some companies are using for planning would, if itbecame a market price, have a much bigger impact than any of the policies thatgovernments are now talking about.
但是某些公司运用这种碳价来制定商业计划,倘若该价格成为市场价格,将会比政府现在讨论的任何政策产生更大的影响。
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offset ['ɔ:fset]

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n. 抵销,支派,平版印刷,弯管,[计]偏移量

 
fledgling ['fledʒliŋ]

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n. 刚会飞的幼鸟,尚缺乏经验的人

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calculate ['kælkjuleit]

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v. 计算,估计,核算,计划,认为

 
shell [ʃel]

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n. 壳,外壳
v. 去壳,脱落,拾贝壳

 
conglomerate [kɔn'glɔmərit]

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adj. 密集而固结的,成簇的 n. 联合企业,密集体,

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effective [i'fektiv]

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adj. 有效的,有影响的

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supplier [sə'plaiə]

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n. 供应者,供应厂商,供应国

 
erroneous [i'rəuniəs]

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adj. 错误的,不正确的

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anticipation [æn.tisi'peiʃən]

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n. 预期,预料

 
contribute [kən'tribju:t]

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vt. 捐助,投稿
vi. 投稿,贡献,是原因

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