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托福TPO-18 Lecture 2

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Narrator:Listen to part of a lecture in an Art History class.

独白:听下面一段艺术史课程上的演讲。
PROFESSOR:Today we'll continue our examination of ancient Roman sculpture.
教授:今天我们将继续关于古罗马雕塑史的讨论。
We've already looked at portrait sculpture which are busts created to commemorate people who had died, and we've looked at relief sculpture, or sculpting on walls.
我们前面已经看过了用于纪念逝者的塑像,我们也欣赏过浮雕,即在墙面上的雕塑。
And today we'll look at yet another category of sculpture-copies. Roman sulptors made copies of famous Greek sculptures.
今天,我们将要欣赏的,是另一类雕塑,即复制品。 罗马的雕刻家复制古希腊的著名雕塑。
Student 1:Why did they do that?
学生:罗马人为什么会那样做呢?
PROFESSOR:Well no one knows for sure.
教授:嗯,我们其实也不是特别清楚。
You see, in the late 4th century B.C., the Romans began a campaign to expand the Roman Empire, and in 300 years they had conquered most of the Mediterranean area and parts of Europe.
在公元4世纪晚期,罗马人发动了一场战役,试图扩大罗马帝国的版图。之后的300年里,他们征服了地中海的大部分国家和欧洲的一部分。
You know the saying,"To the victor belong the spoils"?
想必大家都知道这个谚语“战利品为征服者所有”,
Well, the Roman army returned to Rome with many works of Greek art.
嗯,当罗马军队回到了本土,他们手里就有很多希腊艺术品了。
It's probably fair to say that the Romans were impressed by Greek art and culture and they began making copies of the Greek statues.
当然,罗马人被希腊艺术品和希腊文化震撼了,所以之后他们就开始复制古希腊艺术品了。
Now the dominant view in traditional art his that Roman artists lacked creativity and skill especially compared to the Greek artists who came before them.
在传世艺术学界,现在有一种主流观点是,和他们之前的希腊艺术家相比,罗马艺术家缺乏创造力和技巧。
Essentially, the traditional view, a view that's been prevalent for over 250 years, is that the Romans copied Greek sculptures because they couldn't create sculpture of their own.
大体上说,罗马人因不自创雕塑而复制希腊艺术品这一说法流行了250 年。
But finally some contemporary art historians have challenged this view.
但是,现当代的艺术史学家们颠覆了这个看法,
One is Elaine Gazda .
其中一位代表人物是伊莱因?伽自达。
Gazda says that there might be other reasons that Romans made copies.
伽自达指出,罗马人复制希腊艺术品,可能另有原因。
She wasn't convinced that it was because of a lack of creativity.
她并不相信罗马人缺乏创造力。
Can anyone think of another possible reason?
同学们,你们能够想到一些其他的原因吗?
Student 2:Well maybe they just admired these sculptures.
嗯,也许他们只是钦慕这些雕塑,喜欢这些雕塑的观感。
You know, they liked the way they looked. Yes. That's one of Gazda's points.
不错,这就是伽自达提出观点中的一项。
Another is that while nowadays reproduction is easy, it was not so easy in Roman times.
另一项是,尽管今天复制一件艺术品很简单,但这并不意味着罗马时代亦是如此。
Copying statues required a lot of skill, time and effort.
复制一件艺术品,需要许多技巧、时间和精力。
So Gazda hypothesizes that copying didn't indicate a lack of artistic imagination or skill on the part of Roman artists, but rather the Romans made copies because they admired Greek sculpture.
所以,伽自达提出假说,认为罗马人的复制品并不能表明他们缺乏艺术想象力或者艺术技巧,而是表明他们内心对希腊艺术的敬仰。
Classical Greek statues represented an idealization of the human body and were considered quite beautiful at the time.
古希腊雕塑展现出一种理想化的人体形态,这种形态在当时被认为是美的表现。
Gazda also believes that it's been a mistake to dismiss the Roman copies as, well, copies for copy's sake and not to consider the Roman function and meaning of the statues.
伽自达相信,过去对罗马人的复制品以及罗马人复制古希腊艺术品这一行为的轻视是错误的;应该要考虑罗马雕塑的功能和意义。
Student 1:What do you mean the Roman function? Weren't they just for decoration?
学生:您能解释一下什么是“罗马艺术品的功能”吗?这些雕塑难道不只是用来作装饰品的?
PROFESSOR:Well, not necessarily.
教授:嗯,可能不是吧!
Under the Emperor Augustus at the height of the Roman Empire, portrait statues were sent throughout the empire.
他们应该是被罗马人用来传达帝国、帝国皇室的某项意图,
They were supposed to communicate specific ideas about the emperor and the imperial family and to help inhabitants of the conquered areas become familiar with the Roman coins were also distributed throughout the empire.
以及帮助被罗马人征服地域的民众熟悉帝国领域内广泛发行的罗马硬币。
Anybody care to guess what was on them?
有人想过这些硬币上刻的是什么吗?
Student 2:The emperor's face?
学生:罗马皇帝面相?
PROFESSOR:That's right!
教授:对!
The coins were easy to distribute and they allowed people to see the emperor or at least his likes and served as an additional reminder to let them know, well, who was in charge.
一方面,硬币是用来流通的;另一方面,这种硬币使得皇帝治下的民众常常能看到皇帝的面相,提醒他们到底是谁在掌控整个国家。
And the images helped people become familiar with the emperor.
所以,硬币上的帝王像帮助民众了解君主。
Statues of him in different roles were sent all over the empire.
当时,帝王各种不同角色的雕塑被送到了帝国各个角落。
Now, actually some Roman sculptures were original but others were exact copies of Greek statues and some Roman sculptures were combinations of some sort.
现在人们意识到,一些罗马雕塑其实是原创的,另一些是复制于希腊雕塑的,
Some combined more than one Greek statue and others combined a Greek god or an athlete with a Roman's head.
还有一些是半原创、半复刻的—这些综合性雕塑中,一部分不只参照了希腊雕塑,还有一些雕塑把古希腊神像或运动员与罗马人的头颅放在一起。
At the time of Julius Caesar, I wasn't uncommon to create statues that had the body of a god and the head of an emperor.
在居流士担任凯撒的时代,神为体、帝为头的雕塑并不罕见。
And the Romans were clever.
其实,罗马人非常聪明。
What they did was they made plaster casts from molds of the sculptures.
他们当时从古希腊雕塑中制作出模具,
Then they shipped these plaster casts to workshops all over the empire, where they were replicated in marble or bronze.
然后再把模具送到帝国各个地方负责制造大理石或者青铜雕像的作坊中,
And on some statues the heads were removable.
并且有些模具的头部是可以更换的。
They could put an emperor's head on different bodies, showing him doing different things.
他们可以把皇帝的头颅放到不同的躯干上,从而展示他不同的事迹。
And then later when the time came they could even use the head of the next emperor on the same body.
甚至到了后来,他们可以把不同皇帝的头颅安装在一个躯干上。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
essentially [i'senʃəli]

想一想再看

adv. 本质上,本来

 
expand [iks'pænd]

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v. 增加,详述,扩展,使 ... 膨胀,
v

联想记忆
reminder [ri'maində]

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n. 提醒物,提示

 
specific [spi'sifik]

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adj. 特殊的,明确的,具有特效的
n. 特

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impressed

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adj. 外加的;印象深刻的;了不起的;受感动的

 
marble ['mɑ:bl]

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n. 大理石
vt. 使有大理石的花纹

 
decoration [.dekə'reiʃən]

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n. 装饰,装饰品

 
additional [ə'diʃənl]

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adj. 附加的,另外的

 
function ['fʌŋkʃən]

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n. 功能,函数,职务,重大聚会
vi. 运行

 
artistic [ɑ:'tistik]

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adj. 艺术的

联想记忆

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