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托福TPO-19 Lecture 3

来源:可可英语 编辑:mike   VIP免费外教试听课 |  可可官方微信:ikekenet
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Narrator:Listen to part of a lecture in a marine biology class.

独白:听下面一段海洋生物学课上的对话。
Professor:Ok, today we are going to continue our discussion of plant life in coastal salt marshes of North America.
教授:好的,今天我们继续前面关于北美地区海碱沼泽地带的植物的讨论。
Salt marshes are among the least inviting environments for plants.
海碱沼泽是植物最难以生存的环境之一。
The water is salty, there is little shade and the ocean tide comes in and out, constantly flooding the marsh, so the variety of plants found in salt marshes is limited, but there is a plant genus that thrives there, the Spartina.
那些地方的水盐分含量高,没有遮光物,并且起起落落的潮汐一直使沼泽处于被淹没的状态,所以,海碱地带的植物类型非常的单一。而在这些地方,你们可以发现一种叫做米草属的植物。
In fact, the Spartina genus is the dominant plant found in salt marshes. You can find one type of the Spartina, Saltmarsh Cordgrass, growing in low marsh areas. In higher marsh areas, you are likely to find a Spartina commonly called Salt-meadow Hay.
这个属中,生活在地势低的海碱地带的一般叫做海泽琴弦草,生活在地势高的叫做海蒲草。
So how is the Spartina able to survive in an environment that would kill most plants?
这样的话,为什么米草属的植物的生活范围能够覆盖所有其他植物不能适应的地带呢?
Well, it is because salt marsh grasses have found ways to adapt to the conditions there.
嗯,这是因为,这个属的植物通过各种方式适应了海碱地的环境。
First of all, they are able to withstand highly saline conditions.
首先,它们能够承受高度的盐离子。
One really interesting adaptation is the ability to reverse the process of osmosis.
这里涉及到一项非常有趣的适应机能,即逆渗透。
Typically, the process of osmosis works... Well, when water moves through the wall of a plant cell, it will move from the side containing water with the lowest amount of salt into the side containing the highest amount of salt.
一般来说,渗透的原理是,嗯,当水穿过植物的细胞壁时,一般来说,是含有盐分低的一方进入到含有盐分高的一方中去。
So imagine what would happen if a typical plant suddenly found itself in salt water, the water contained in the plant cells, that is water with very little salt would be drawn out toward the seawater, water with a lot of salt.
所以,同学们可以假设一株一般的植物,突然被放置到盐水中,会发生什么呢?植物中含有的水分的盐含量非常低,所以这些水分就会被吸引到盐分高的海水中去。
So you can see the fresh water contained in the plant will be removed and the plant will quickly lose all its water and dehydrate.
所以,我们看到的将会是植物的水分很快丢失,并且很快脱水。
But what about the Spartinas, well, they allow a certain amount of salt to enter their cells, bringing the salt content of the water within the plant, to a slightly higher concentration than that of the surrounding seawater.
但米草属的植物是怎样的呢?它们会允许一部分海水进入它们的细胞,从而把盐分带入到植物中,形成一个比周围海水含盐度更高的盐溶液。
So instead of fresh water moving out of the plant cells, salt from the seawater enters, reverse osmosis, and this actually strengthens the cells.
这样的话,海水不仅不能抽走它的水分,反而还要进入到它的体内,这就是所谓的反渗透。这种能力增加了细胞的强度。
Another adaptation to the salty environment is the ability to excrete excess salt back to the environment.
它们适应环境的另一项进化是排除超量盐分的能力。
That's why you might see a Spartina shimmering in the sunlight.
这个能力解释了为什么它在阳光下看起来总是闪闪发亮的。
What's reflecting the light is not salt from seawater that has evaporated, although that's a good guess.
但是,反光的不是海水中蒸发水分而形成的盐结晶,虽然这个想法不错。
But it is actually the salt that came from within the plant. Pretty cool, eh?
实际上,反射光的,是植物内部的盐结晶。很酷吧?
You can really impress your friends and family with that little? The next time you are in a salt marsh.
下一次到了海边的沼泽地带,你可以找一两株这样的植物,在你亲朋面前秀一下。
But coping with salt is not the only challenge for plants in the salt marsh.,soil there is dense and very low in oxygen,
但是,适应海碱地带过量的盐分并不足以保障他们的生存,因为那儿的泥土非常紧密,而且含氧量极低,
so Spartinas have air tubes, air enters through tiny openings on the leaves, the tubes provide direct pipe line for oxygen, carrying it down the leaves through the stems and into the roots, where it is needed.
所以,大米草还得长出氧气管,空气可以从这些管道的微笑开口透入;而这些管道中专门为氧气提供了直接入口,直接从叶面把氧气输送到需要氧气的根部。
If you pull up a Spartina, you might even notice some reddish mud on some of the roots, this is caused by oxygen reacting with iron sulfide in the soil, and it produces iron oxide or rust.
如果你拔起一株米草属,你甚至还能发现一些粘在根部的红色泥土,这些土壤的颜色是由氧气和土壤中的硫化铁发生反应形成的,这个反应生成氧化铁,俗名铁锈。
Now, although the Spartinas have adapted several chemical and physical mechanisms that allow them to thrive in salt water and to feed oxygen to their roots. There is yet another aspect of the harsh environment that they have to adapt to, the force of tides and occasional violent storms.
当然,尽管大米草适应了咸水的化学和物理方面的各种要求,依然还存在其他它们需要适应的环境问题,即潮汐的撕扯和飓风的暴力。
Wind and water are constantly crashing into these plants.
风和海水时时刻刻都在抓扯着它们,
So as you might have guessed, they have developed a means of solidly anchoring themselves into the soil. How?
所以,正如同学们能够设想到的那样,大米草有一种把自己固定在泥土中的本领。这是怎么做到的呢?
They have tough sort of underground stems called rhizome, rhizomes from one plant grow through the muddy soil and interlock with those of other nearby plants, the plants form a kind of colony, a community that will thrive and perish together.
它们长出一种叫做地茎的水下根系,一株草的地茎穿透、包围它覆盖的泥土,并且和其他植株的地茎铰链在一起,形成一种稳固的领地,这样的话,这块领地上的植物就能够相互依托,共谋生存。
Because alone as single plants, they cannot survive.
它们单独在海中是无法存活的。
Of course the plants in these colonies also need tough resilient stems above the soil, stems that can bent a lot but not break as water constantly crashes into them.
当然,这些领地上的植株还需要灵活性良好、能够随意弯折而不断开的分枝。
So in addition to the interlocking underground rhizomes, they have yet another adaptation, and it is ... well,
所以,除了相互铰链的地枝外,它们还有另一种进化…
we are back to reverse osmosis again, by adjusting the osmotic pressure so that the cells are always fully inflated, the plant is able to withstand great pressure before snapping, so Spartinas may look like simple marsh grass,
嗯,我们还是回到反渗透吧!通过调节渗透压而保证细胞的饱和状态,大米草从而经受住了海底的巨大压强。这似乎使我们觉得大米草看上去就是简单的沼泽草类,
but they are really a wonder of chemistry, physics and structural engineering that allows them to survive and even thrive in an environment in which most other plants will wilt and die within hours.
但实际上,它们是化学,物理学和结构工程学等的最佳范式,正是在这些方面独一无二的进化,使得它们能够在别的植物无法忍受的环境中生存,甚至兴旺。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
reverse [ri'və:s]

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n. 相反,背面,失败,倒档
adj. 反面的

联想记忆
interlocking [intə(:)'lɔkiŋ]

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adj. 联锁的,交织在一起的 动词interlock的

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community [kə'mju:niti]

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n. 社区,社会,团体,共同体,公众,[生]群落

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certain ['sə:tn]

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adj. 确定的,必然的,特定的
pron.

 
challenge ['tʃælindʒ]

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n. 挑战
v. 向 ... 挑战

 
addition [ə'diʃən]

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n. 增加,附加物,加法

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colony ['kɔləni]

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n. 殖民地,侨民,侨居地,聚居(地), 群体,菌落

 
typical ['tipikəl]

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adj. 典型的,有代表性的,特有的,独特的

 
salty ['sɔ:lti]

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adj. 咸的

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shade [ʃeid]

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n. 阴影,遮蔽,遮光物,(色彩的)浓淡
vt

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