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托福TPO-21 Lecture 4

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Narrator:Listen to part of a lecture in an Art History class.

独白:听下面一段艺术历史的课堂讲解
All right, so today we are moving on to Alice Neel, N-E-E-L.
好啦,今天我们来讲一下爱丽丝. 尼尔,N-E-E-L。
Um...Alice Neel painted portraits, she was born in Pennsylvania, and she lived from 1900 to 1984.
爱丽丝尼尔是一位画肖像画的画家,她出生于宾夕法尼亚州,生于 1900 年,于 1984 年去世。
And I guess you might say, she experienced difficulties as an artist.
我想你会说,作为一名画家,她是经历了艰难险阻。
She was in her 70s, before she had her first major solo exhibition.
直到她 70 多岁的时候,她才有了一次自己的大型专属画展。
Um, and this is due at least in part to eh... or... because of photography.
呃, 这至少有一部分原因是归结于摄影的出现。
After photography became regarded as an art form portrait painting became less prestigious, less respected as an art form.
在摄影作为一项艺术形式出现以后,肖像画就变得不那么盛行了,也不再那么受尊崇了。
And, well, art photography kind of took its place, so you can imagine that a portrait artist would have had a hard time finding acceptance.
摄影有些取代了肖像画的位置,所以你们可以想象作为一名肖像画家,想受到关注一定是很难的。
Eh, but the real reason I want to look at Neel, is that I really find her style ... eh, she had interesting ways of portraying people.
呃,真正我去关注尼尔的原因其实是她的绘画风格。呃,她描绘人的方式很有趣。
She combined some elements of realism. What's realism, Alison?
她在画里面注入了一些现实主义元素。艾莉森,社么是现实主义?
It's like painting something exactly how it is, so an artist would try to make it as accurate, um... and objective as possible.
就是按照事物的本身来创作,画家会尽量画的逼真、准确。呃,而且尽量的客观。
Painting stuff just how it appears on the surface.
就是表面上是什么样子就画成什么样子。
Ok, good. So Neel combined realism with, well, actually, with expressionism. And that is? We, we just covered this.
好的,不错。尼尔将现实主义呢,又融入了表现主义。这又是什么呢?我们其实刚讲过这个问题。
Um…It's into emotion, like artists are trying to, well, express themselves through the painting, right?
呃,就是注入情感,就像画家们试图通过作品来表现出他们自己一样,对吗?
Yep. The artist is depicting subjective emotions, showing the inner reality as interpreted by the artist rather than the outward form.
是的。就是画家在描绘主观的情感,通过作品来表现出内在的真实而不是外在的形式。
So the image itself might be distorted or exaggerated in some way.
所以画出的形象可能会在某种程度上变形或者夸张化。
The expression overrides objective representation.
表现主义就掩盖了客观的呈现。
Ok, so, Alice Neel combined these two styles ... Yes?
那么,爱丽丝尼尔就结合了这两种风格。有什么问题?
Em... How is that even possible?
那怎么可能呢?
How can your portray something exactly as it is and at the same time distort it with emotions? I don't get it.
怎么可能一边完全客观的作画,一边又带有感情的去使之变形呢?我不明白。
All right, good question.
好的,问的好。
It is actually a good lead-in to some of the techniques that Neel used, that she employed to bridge that contradiction.
你的问题可以作为引出尼尔技巧的开场白,她使用了一些技巧来消除这样的矛盾。
In a minute, I'll show you some of her portraits, and I'll want you to notice a few things about them.
等一下,我给你们展示几张她的作品,我希望你们能从中注意到一些东西。
First, Neel's use of bold color. All right?
首先,尼尔用色很大胆,对吗?
You'll see she uses color to convey emotion and feeling, like the subjects' clothing for instance, it appears brighter than it really is.
你会发现她使用颜色来抒发情感和感受,比如说画中人的衣服,就比实际上的颜色要鲜艳。
And the subjects, the people being portrayed, Neel paid special attention to faces.
画中的人物呢,尼尔更注重面部的勾画。
The way she paints the eyes and how the faces are portrayed, these are quite realistic, like the realists' work.
她画眼睛的方式及对面部的勾画都是非常现实的,和现实主义画家的作品一样。
But another thing Neel did was use elongated, sort of stretchy figures.
但是尼尔还运用了将人物拉长的这种绘画手段。
But didn't a lot of expressionist painters do that?
但是不是很多表现主义画家都这样做嘛?
So really your are saying that Neel's techniques were similar to what other artists were doing.
所以你所谓的尼尔的技巧和其他画家的技巧其实是一样的啊。
What was it that she did, that was like all her own?
那么什么是她自己专属的风格的?
Ok, well, I think it has to do partly with the way she combined these techniques.
好的。我想是和她能将这些技巧结合的使用有关系。
So, for example, those realistic faces and eyes, but bright, distorted figures.
比如那些现实的脸和眼睛,配上艳丽的扭曲的身体。
It is a mix.
这是一个混合体。
You'll see that her portraits do reflect reality, the people that were actually sitting there.
你会发现她的肖像画的确反射出现实来,人们确实是坐在那里的。
Realism was important in the sense that she wanted to show people as they really were, much like a photographer would.
现实主义体现在重要的一点就是她想给人们展示人物真实的样子来,就像摄影师一样。
But Neel wasn't satisfied with photo-like realism, she went beyond that.
但是尼尔并不满足于如照片般的现实主义,她有所创新。
And this is where expressionism comes in.
那么这就出现了表现主义。
She believed in capturing the whole person, not just what was on the surface, that's where the expressionists' distortion is important, in an attempt to reveal the subjects' character or personality.
她坚信要捕捉到整个人物的特点,而不是表象的东西,这就体现了表现主义扭曲的重要性,试图显露出人物的性格及特点。
But Neel's paintings are distinctive for her time in part because they are portraits.
但是尼尔的作品在那个时期之所以与众不同是因为它们都是肖像画。
Remember I said hat photography and art photography had largely taken the place of portraiture, to the extent that some critics had declared the genre of portraiture to be dead.
还记得我说摄影及摄影艺术很大程度上代替了肖像画的位置吧, 以至于达到了某些评论家宣布肖像画流派将会销声匿迹声的程度。
But Neel felt that painting should reflect reality, a real realist's stance you could say.
但是尼尔认为画画就是要反射现实, 展示出一个现实主义者的立场。
And to her, individuals, people best reflect the reality of their time, of the age that they lived in, so she painted portraits.
而对她来讲, 在她生活的那个年代, 人物是最能体现现实的, 所以她绘制肖像画。
And if you look at her work, we are talking in the vicinity of three thousand paintings.
如果你们来看她的作品的话, 那可是三万件左右的作品啊。
If you're looked at them, it is like this gallery of the whole century, an enormous range of subjects:
当你们看她的作品的时候, 就好像是整个世纪的艺术长廊, 画中涉及了太多的人物,
families, women, children, artists, and people in poverty--these paintings really span class, age and gender.
有家庭、女人、孩子、艺术家、穷人…这些作品跨越了阶级、年龄以及性别。
It is like she transformed the genre, it is not just formal depictions of presidents and ancestors any more.
就好像是她转变了这个流派,而不再是去绘制很正式的总统或者祖先的画像。
But keep in mind that she was doing this when abstract art dominated the art scene.
但是要记住这一点,在尼尔的那个年代抽象艺术极具盛行。
Representations of people weren't fashionable in the art world.
展示人物在艺术界里并不流行。
And it wasn't until fairly late in the century that critic recognized the power of what she did.
而且直到上个世纪晚期,评论家们才意识到她说的话的重要性。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
accurate ['ækjurit]

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adj. 准确的,精确的

联想记忆
span [spæn]

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n. 跨度,跨距,间距
vt. 横跨,贯穿,估

 
contradiction [.kɔntrə'dikʃən]

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n. 反驳,矛盾,不一致,否认

 
distortion [dis'tɔ:ʃən]

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n. 扭曲,变形,曲解

联想记忆
distinctive [di'stiŋktiv]

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adj. 独特的

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convey [kən'vei]

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vt. 传达,表达,运输,转移
vt.

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exaggerated [ig'zædʒəreitid]

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adj. 言过其辞的,夸大的 动词exaggerate的

 
portray [pɔ:'trei]

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vt. 描写,描绘,饰演

 
genre ['ʒɑ:nrə]

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n. 类型,流派

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fashionable ['fæʃənəbl]

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adj. 流行的,时髦的

联想记忆

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