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托福TPO-22 Lecture 1

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Narrator:Listen to part of a lecture in an anthropology class.

独白:听下面一段人类学的课堂讲解。
One of the big questions when we look at prehistory is why did the earliest states form?
当我们审视史前历史的时候,最大的一个问题就是为何最早的城邦会形成。
Well, to begin we'd better define exactly what we mean when we talk about states.
呃,首先我们需要给“城邦”一个明确的定义。
The human groups that are the smallest and have the least social and political complexity, we call bands.
最小的、社交最少的,而且政治体系最不复杂的人类群体,我们称之为群体。
The groups that are the largest and most socially and politically complex, we call states.
最大的、社交最多的,而且政治体系最复杂的,我们称之为城邦。
So, the level of complexity here refers to the organization of people into large, diverse groups, and densely populated communities.
这里指的复杂水平是说人们群体组织发展成庞大,群体多样,人口密集的集体。
And there are four levels in total:bands, tribes, chiefdoms and states.
而总共有四种社会组织:群体、部落、酉帮以及城邦。
But, but back to my original question.
那么再回到我起初的问题上来,
Why did early states form?
为什么早期的城邦会形成呢?
Why not just continue to live in small groups?
为何不继续生活在小群体中呢?
Why become more complex?
为什么要变得更复杂呢?
One theory called the environmental approach hypothesizes that the main force behind state formation was population growth.
一种叫做环境法的理论推测人口增长是城邦的形成的主要推动力。
It assumes that centralized management was critical to dealing with issues caused by sudden population surges, like a strain on limited food supplies.
这种理论认为集中管理对处理人口突然剧增引起的问题是至关重要的,比如紧张有限的食物供应。
At the least complex end of the spectrum, the few families living in bands are able to meet their own basic needs.
在社会复杂度最低的范围内,为数不多的家庭能够自给自足。
They usually hunt together and forage whatever foods are available to them, instead of domesticating animals and planting crops.
他们通常一起打猎,寻找一切可以得到的食物,而不是驯养动物或种植庄稼。
In order to efficiently take advantage of the wild foods available, bands are often nomadic and move around following herds of animals.
为了更有效的捕猎到野生动物,他们通常是游牧民族,追随着一群群动物的迁徙而随遇而安。
This strategy is feasible when you have a small population.
这种生活方式在人口小的群体中是可行的。
But when you have a large population, well, the whole population can't just get up and move to follow a wild herd of animals.
而当人口很多的时候,就不可能所有人都随时起身并跟着一群野生动物四处游荡。
So you need sophisticated technologies to produce enough food for everyone.
因此就需要复杂的技术来为每个人提供充足的食物。
And there is an increase need to resolve social problems that arise as people begin to compete for resources.
而且由于人们为资源相互竞争而引起的众多社会问题也都需要得到解决。
To manage intensified food production, to collect, store and distribute food, you need centralized decision-making, centralized decision-makers.
为了加强食物的生产、收集、储藏及分配,你就需要一个中央的决策及一个决策者。
It's the same thing when it comes to maintaining social order.
同样,维持社会秩序也如此。
You need to create and efficiently enforce a formal legal code.
你需要创建并有效的实施一项正式的法典,
It makes sense to have a centralized authority in charge of that, right?
那么有个中央权力机构来负责就很说得通了,对吗?
So a hierarchy forms.
因此就形成了阶级。
By definition, states had at least three social levels.
定义上看,城邦至少有三个社会等级。
Usually, an upper class of rulers, a middleclass comprised of managers and merchants, and a lower class of crop producers and agricultural laborers.
通常是上层由领导阶级构成,中层管理人员及商人构成,下层则由农作物生产者及农业劳动者构成。
The environmental approach hypothesizes that states appear in certain environmental settings, settings which have a severe population problem or a shortage of agricultural land.
环境法推测城邦是在特定的环境条件中出现的,这样的环境可能是存在严重的人口问题或者是农业用地短缺。
But not everyone agrees with the theory.
但并不是每个人都同意这个观点。
It definitely has some weaknesses.
这个理论肯定是存在一些弊病的。
For example, states have developed in places like the mild lowlands of Mesoamerica and in Egypt's Nile River Valley.
比如在中美洲温暖的低地及埃及的尼罗河畔就都有城邦的出现。
Both places had vast areas of fertile farmland, no shortage of agricultural land.
这两个地方有广阔肥沃的土地,并不是农业用地匮乏。
And what about population increase?
那么人口增加这一点呢?
Well, there were some early states that formed where there wasn't any sudden population increase.
呃,有一些早期城邦是在没有人口突然加剧的情况下产生的。
So it seems that these are valid criticisms of the environmental approach.
因此,看来这些都是对环境法的有力的批判。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
severe [si'viə]

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adj. 剧烈的,严重的,严峻的,严厉的,严格的

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original [ə'ridʒənl]

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adj. 最初的,原始的,有独创性的,原版的

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approach [ə'prəutʃ]

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n. 接近; 途径,方法
v. 靠近,接近,动

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authority [ə'θɔ:riti]

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n. 权力,权威,职权,官方,当局

 
populated

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adj. 粒子数增加的 v. 居住于…中;构成…的人口(

 
diverse [dai'və:s]

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adj. 不同的,多种多样的

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feasible ['fi:zəbl]

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adj. 可行的,可能的

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produce [prə'dju:s]

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n. 产品,农作物
vt. 生产,提出,引起,

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dealing ['di:liŋ]

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n. 经营方法,行为态度
(复数)dealin

 
complex ['kɔmpleks]

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adj. 复杂的,复合的,合成的
n. 复合体

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