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托福TPO-23 Lecture 1

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Narrator:Listen to part of a lecture in an archaeology class.

独白:听下面一段关于考古学的课堂讲解。
Professor:I was talking to one of my colleagues in the physics department the other day,
教授:有一天我跟物理系的一位同事聊天,
and we ended up discussing how one discovery can change everything.
聊到一个发现有可能会改变所有的事情。
My colleague mentioned how the theory of relativity completely changed the field of physics.
他提到相对论彻底地改变了物理学。
At any rates, that conversation got me thinking about archaeological finds that really changed our understanding of ancient civilizations.
不管怎样,这段对话是我想到了考古发现的确改变了我们对古代文明的看法。
So I want to talk about the discovery of the Antikythera Mechanism.
所以我想要讲一下自动回转式天球仪的发现。
The Antikythera Mechanism was found a hundred years ago, under water in an ancient Greek shipwreck in the Mediterranean Sea.
自动回转式天球仪是在一百年前在地中海的一艘古希腊的沉船的残骸中发现的。
It was in extremely poor condition and in many corroded pieces.
被发现时它已经破烂不堪,被腐蚀成许多碎片。
But once we figured out what it was and reconstructed it.
但当发现了它到底是什么以后,我们便重新组装了它。
Well, I simply don't have the words to convey how extraordinary this find was.
我实在是无法用语言表达这个发现有多么的不寻常。
The Antikythera Mechanism is a relatively small device,
自动回转式天球仪是一个相对较小的装置,
roughly the size of a shoebox, made of gears fitted inside a wooden case.
大概跟鞋盒一样大,是在一个木盒中装了齿轮的装置。
In its original state, there were rotating dials and other indicators on the top,
在原型中,在顶部有旋转的刻度盘和其他的指示器,
with letters and drawings showing the Sun, the phases of the moon and different constellations.
上面用字母和图画太阳,月相和不同的星座。
Inside the box, bronze gears would have rotated the displays.
在盒子内部,铜的齿轮旋转以改变显示的内容。
The displays, uh, the indicators of the Antikythera Mechanism, would then moved to show the motion of the Sun and moon relative to the planets and stars.
显示的内容,也就是天球仪的指示器会转动并显示出太阳、月亮和行星的运行。
The device could be used to tell the different phases of the moon and much more.
这个装置可以用来表示月相和更多的信息。
Well, scientists have recently analyzed the inscriptions on the mechanism and re-examine the other cargo in the ship wreck,
最近,科学家对这个机器上的雕刻进行了分析,并再次检查了沉船上的其他货物,
and the evidence makes an absolute case that this device dates back to ancient Greece somewhere between 150 and 100 B.C.E.
有明确的证据证明这个装置可以追溯到公元前 150 年到公元前 100 年的古罗马时代。
What makes that so fascinating is that before we found the Antikythera Mechanism,
令人感到惊讶的是在天球仪之前,人们知道的最早的能够测算太阳和约球轨道的仪器
the earliest device we had that could track the Sun and moon like this was invented over 1,000 years later.
是在此以后的1000 年才发明的。
So when this was first found, people literally would not believe it.
所以最初发现是,人们确实无法相信。
Some of my colleagues insisted it had to have been made well after 100 B.C.E.
我的一些同事坚持认为它肯定是在公元前 100 年以后才被发明出来的。
But this physical evidence was conclusive.
但是物理证据是不可否认的,
It was that old.
它的确是那么古老。
Of course part of what made this find so unusual is that the Antikythera Mechanism is constructed of bronze.
当然关于天球仪还有一个不寻常的发现,那就是它是由铜构成的。
Now, it is not that bronze was all that rare in Greece then, it is just that bronze was valuable and could easily be recycled.
并不是说那是铜在希腊十分罕见,而是铜十分贵重而且容易回收。
It would have been relatively easy for a person with knowledge of metals to melt down bronze objects and forge them into…
一个对金属有所了解的人就可以轻易地将铜溶解并重新锻制。
well, say, coins. Bronze was used to made money back then.
比如说,做成硬币。那时铜用来铸币。
Or mold the bronze into anything else of value for that matter.
又或者将铜做成其他有价值的东西。
We are very fortunate that the device ended up under water,
十分幸运的是这个装置被淹没在水下,
because otherwise it probably would have ended up recycled into…who knows what.
否则它就又能被回收利用了做成什么呢?谁知道呢。
Now, it was a challenge to figure out the Antikythera Mechanism.
现在,要弄清楚天球仪是一个挑战。
It spent over 2,000 years at the bottom of the sea before it was discovered.
他被淹没在水下长达两千年才被发现。
And even after it was discovered,
而且发现了它,
it was still a number of years before we really understood what it was.
我们还要许多年来弄清楚它是什么。
You see, the mechanism had corroded underwater,
你想这个装置在水下已经被腐蚀了,
and many of the gears were stuck together in a mass.
许多齿轮都粘在一起一团糟。
Cleaning it was only partly successful.
只有一下部分被清理干净。
We could only get a good look at the structure of the gears after gamma-rays were used to see inside,
只有当应用了伽马射线后我们对内部的结构有所了解,
very similar to the way X-rays are used to see your bones.
就像用 X 光用来观察大家的骨骼一样。
Now, once we got a good look inside, we saw a really complex device.
在仔细地观察了内部结构以后,人们发现这是一个十分复杂的装置。
The many gears not only moved in a way that could indicate the phases of the moon.
这些齿轮的转动并不仅仅能显示出月相。
The Antikythera Mechanism also tracked both the lunar year and the solar year.
天球仪还能够显示出农历和公历。
Additionally, the gears also moved to match the motions of the planet and predicted eclipses.
还有,这些出轮的运动还符合行星的运行并预报日蚀和月蚀。
But one thing that is particularly notable is that the mechanism was so precise,
但是最引人注目的是这个装置十分精确,
that it even took into account a particular irregularity in the moon's orbit,
它还测算出了月球轨道的不对称性,
which requires some very complex math to replicate in mechanical device.
这需要十分复杂的数学计算才能在机械设备中模拟出来。
You could say that the Antikythera Mechanism was a very precise calendar,
可以说天球仪是一个十分精确的日历,
which stands to reasons calendars were very important to ancient peoples.
这证明了日历对古代的人十分重要。
Religious festivals had to be held at the right time of year,
宗教节日必须要在一年中的正确的时间举行,
crops needed to be planted at the right time as well.
作物也需要在准确的时间播种。
And let's not forget that eclipses in planetary motions had important symbolic meanings.
我们不要忘了行星运行的日蚀具有重要的象征意义。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
planetary ['plænitəri]

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adj. 行星的,有轨道的

 
mold [məuld]

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n. 模子,模型,类型,模式,雏型,真菌,软土

 
mechanical [mi'kænikəl]

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adj. 机械的,力学的,呆板的
n. (供制

 
figure ['figə]

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n. 图形,数字,形状; 人物,外形,体型
v

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colleague ['kɔli:g]

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n. 同事

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complex ['kɔmpleks]

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adj. 复杂的,复合的,合成的
n. 复合体

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fascinating ['fæsineitiŋ]

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adj. 迷人的

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particular [pə'tikjulə]

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adj. 特殊的,特别的,特定的,挑剔的
n.

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replicate ['replikeit]

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v. 折叠,复制,模写 n. 同样的样品 adj. 转折

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valuable ['væljuəbl]

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adj. 贵重的,有价值的
n. (pl.)贵

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