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托福TPO-24 Lecture 4

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Narrator:Listen to part of a lecture in an astronomy class.

独白:请听下面一段天文学课堂上的讲解。
Professor:Many people have been fascinated about Venus for centuries because of its thick cloud cover, this so-called planet of mystery and all of that.
教授:几个世纪来许多人都对厚云层覆盖的金星有着深厚的兴趣,它被称之为神秘的星球。
Well, what's under those clouds? What's the surface of the planet like?
那么,云层下面是什么呢?金星的表面是什么样子呢?
Some questions about the surface are still unresolved but, but we have learned a lot about it in the past several years.
关于金星地表的一些问题还没有被解决,但是在过去的几年中我们也对之有所了解。
First of all, let me talk about how we have been able to get past those clouds.
首先,让我说一下我们已经能够穿过这些厚厚的云层。
First, there were Soviet modules2 that landed directly on the surface and sent back some images of what was around them.
首先,是苏联的“金星二号”探测器,他直接着陆在金星表面并发回了它周围的图像。
Second, we did some radar imaging from satellites from above.
其次,我们用金星上空的卫星金星了雷达成像。
Radar can get through the clouds. So what have we learned? Yes, Karen?
雷达可以穿过云层。所以我们都知道了什么呢?好,凯伦?
Student:Well, I remember reading that there's not really a lot going on, that the surface of Venus is just flat and smooth in a lot of places.
学生:嗯,我记得读到过,并没有多大的收获,金星的地表的大部分地区十分平坦。
Professor:Yeah, smooth in a lot of places.
教授:是的,大部分地区十分平坦。
But that's not, um... that's not the whole picture.
但是,并不全是这样。
In other areas, you've got canyons, ripped valleys, meteo craters, uh, lava domes.
在其他地区,有火山、轮廓清晰的山谷、陨石坑、熔岩穹丘。
these lava formations that look like giant pancakes.
这些熔岩的形状就像是巨大的薄饼。
And also volcanoes.
火山也是如此。
Well, one of the most interesting features on the surface are in fact the shield volcanoes.
金星地表最有意思的特征是火山的地盾。
Shield volcanoes formed when magma comes out of the ground in the same spot over and over again.
地盾是由于岩浆反复从一个地方喷出地表而形成的。
Remember, magma is hot molten rock that's underground, and it is called lava when it reaches the surface.
记住,岩浆是地下热的熔化了的岩石,当流出地表后就称为岩浆。
Uh, so the lava builds up, and hardens, and a volcano forms.
这样,岩浆构成并冷却成火山。
Now, the lava on Venus is thin.
金星的岩浆比较稀薄。
It spreads out easily.
它很容易就会喷出。
So shield volcanoes have very gentle sloping sides.
所以火山的地盾比较平缓。
They are called shield volcanoes, because viewed from above, they kind of resemble shields, you know, like a warrior's shield.
他们被叫做盾状火山,是因为从上空看起来他们的形状比较像盾,就是战士的盾牌。
But what's particularly interesting about these volcanoes is that most of the volcanoes here on Earth are not shield volcanoes.
十分有趣的是地球上的火山大部分都不是盾状火山。
Instead, they are other volcano types, like strata volcanoes, for example, which are a result of tectonic plate movement.
相反的,是其他种类的火山,例如,地层火山,是地球板块运动造成的。
Remember tectonic plates?
还记得地层火山吧?
Underneath the Earth's crust, there are a number of shifting slabs or plates that are slowly moving.
在地壳下方,有许多缓缓移动的板块。
And in the zones on the edges of the plates where different plates meet and interact, that's where we get most of Earth's volcanoes On Venus.
而在不同板块连接或互相作用的地区,存在着地球上大部分的火山。
However, volcanoes are not clustered in discrete zones like they are on Earth.
而在金星上,火山并不像在地球上一样在个别地区集中。
Instead, they are more or less randomly scattered over Venus's surface.
相反地它们很随机的分布在金星的表面。
Well, that's significant.
很是壮观。
Venus has mostly shield volcanoes, and they are randomly scattered, that indicates that Venus does not have moving tectonic plates, and that's a big difference compared to Earth.
金星上大部分是盾状火山,它们的分布十分分散,这说明金星没有移动的地质板块,这与地球十分的不同。
Here on Earth, moving tectonic plates are a major geological element, just crucial for the whole surface dynamic, right?
在地球上,活动的地质板块是只要的地质因素,对整个地表的动态变化十分的重要,对不对?
So why doesn't Venus have them? Well, there are a few theories.
为什么金星没有地质板块呢?对此有几个理论。
One of them is that this has to do with the fact that Venus has no surface water that's needed to kind of lubricate the movement of the plates, you know, like oceans on Earth.
其中一个是说由于火星没有地表水,地表水可以为地质板块的运动起到润滑作用,就像在地球上一样。
Yeah, I forgot to spell that out. Uh, Venus has no surface water.
哦,我忘了提到,金星上没有地表水。
Student:Wait a second. Did you say we have shield volcanoes on Earth? Can you give an example?
学生:请等一下。您说地球上有盾状火山?您能举一个例子吗?
Professor:Sure. The volcanoes in the Hawaii islands, in the Pacific Ocean are shield volcanoes.
教授:当然可以了。在太平洋的夏威夷岛上的火山就是盾状火山。
They are formed over a hot spot of magma.
它们是由地下喷出的岩浆构成的。
So while on Earth we have several types of volcanoes, on Venus there's mostly the one type. Uh, Eric?
所以在地球上的火山有很多种,而金星上的火山却差不多只有一种。艾瑞克?
Student:Are the volcanoes on Venus still active?
学生:金星上的火山是活火山吗?
Professor:Well, that's an interesting question.
教授:嗯,这个问题很有意思。
There is still some discussion on that point.
对于这个问题还存在着争论。
But here's what we do now.
这样讲吧。
First, the level of sulfur dioxide gas above Venus's clouds shows large and very frequent fluctuations.
首先,金星云层中的二氧化硫的含量显示出很大幅度并经常的波动。
It is quite possible that these fluctuations, the huge increase and decrease of sulfur dioxide, happening again and again.
这些波动有可能是由二氧化硫不断地骤增和骤减引起的。
It's quite possible that this is due to volcanic eruptions, because volcanic eruptions often emit gases.
很有可能这是由火山爆发引起的,因为火山爆发常常会发射出气体。
If that's the case, volcanism could very well be the root cause of Venus's thick cloud cover.
如果是这样的话,火山活动很有可能是造成金星厚云盖的根本原因。
And also we have observed bursts of radio energy from the planet's surface.
而且我们观察到金星表面会爆发出电磁能量。
These bursts are similar to what we see when volcanoes erupt on Earth.
这种爆发与我们在地球上看到的火山爆发相似。
So this too suggests ongoing volcanic activity.
这也同样使人联想到火山活动。
But although this is intriguing evidence, no one's actually observed a Venus volcano erupting yet, so we can't be positive.
但尽管这个证据十分有吸引力,但是到目前为止并没有人真正的见过金星的火山爆发,所以我们无法肯定。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
lubricate ['lu:brikeit]

想一想再看

v. 润滑,加润滑剂

 
randomly ['rændəmli]

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adv. 任意地,随便地,胡乱地

 
gentle ['dʒentl]

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adj. 温和的,轻柔的,文雅的,温顺的,出身名门的

 
smooth [smu:ð]

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adj. 平稳的,流畅的,安祥的,圆滑的,搅拌均匀的,可

 
discrete [di'skri:t]

想一想再看

adj. 不连续的,离散的

联想记忆
shield ['ʃi:ld]

想一想再看

n. 盾,防卫物,盾状物
vt. 保护,遮蔽

 
volcano [vɔl'keinəu]

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n. 火山

联想记忆
element ['elimənt]

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n. 元素,成分,组成部分,(复数)恶劣天气

 
erupt [i'rʌpt]

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v. 爆发

联想记忆
narrator [næ'reitə]

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n. 叙述者,讲解员

 

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