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托福TPO-25 Lecture 3(下)

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He guessed that the symbols represented the name of the earlier Egyptian ruler Ptolemy, since Ptolemy was also written in Greek on the stone and was indeed a Greek name.

他猜测这些符号代表了早期埃及统治者托勒密的名字,因为石头上也有希腊语写的“托勒密”,且“托勒密”确实是个希腊名字。
And Yang, did actually prove that these hieroglyphs represented sounds rather than whole words.
事实上,杨也证明了这些象形文字代表的是声音,而不是完整单词。
Strangely though, he gave into the dominant thesis of the day that hieroglyphs were pictographs.
但很奇怪的是,他屈服于当时的主流观点,即象形文字是图像表意的。
He actually dismissed his own finding as an anomaly because the Ptolemy dynasty was Greek, not Egyptian.
他认为自己的发现是个反常现象,因为托勒密王朝是在古希腊,而非埃及。
In other words, he figured it was an exception to the rule.
换句话说,他认为这只是个例外。
It was phonetic because it was Greek not Egyptian.
这是注音文字,因为它是希腊语,而不是埃及语。

How else could an Egyptian depict a Greek name other than spell it out?

要不然一个埃及人怎么会把一个希腊名字描述出来,而不是直接拼出来呢?
And that brings us to the hero of our story, Jean-Franrois Champollion.
这就要提到我们的英雄人物了,让·弗朗索瓦·商博良。
Champollion built on Yang's work, showing that different hieroglyphs spell the name of the kings or queens like Alexander or Cleopatra.
商博良基于杨的研究成果,发现不同的象形文字拼写的是国王或王后的名字,像“亚历山大”或“克利奥帕特拉”。
But his critics noticed that these were still not traditional Egyptian names.
但批评他的人发现,这也不是传统的埃及名字。
He hasn't done anything more than Yang has been able to do, so he couldn't disprove the dominant theory.
他并不能比杨多做什么,他也无法推翻主流观点。
Then, in 1822, Champollion was shown a set of hieroglyphs that contain traditional Egyptian names.
接着,在1822年,有人给商博良展示了一组象形文字,其中包含传统埃及名字。
The first two of the symbols were unknown, but Champollion knew that the repeated hieroglyphs to the far right symbolized an 's' sound.
开头的两个符号意义不明,但商博良知道,一直重复至右边尽头的象形文字代表“s”的音。
He then drew on his linguistic knowledge to arrive at the solution to the problem.
接着他利用自己的语言学知识,找到了问题的解决办法。
You see, unlike any of other scholars who have tried to crack the code, Champollion happened to be fluent in Coptic.
不像别的试图破解文字的学者,商博良恰好非常精通埃及古语。
He wondered, and this was the real breakthrough, if the Coptic was the language symbolized by the hieroglyphs on Rosetta stone.
他怀疑(这是真正的突破点)罗塞塔之石上的象形文字所代表的语言是不是埃及古语。
And if so, then perhaps that first disc-shape symbol might represent the Sun.
若真如此,很可能第一个圆片形状的符号代表太阳。
And the Coptic word for Sun is 'ra' .
埃及古语中,太阳是“ra”。
See where this was it headed?
能猜到接下来发生什么了吗?
So if the symbol were Coptic, the first symbol would be 'ra', and then an unknown symbol followed by a double's' sound.
假如这些符号是埃及古语,第一个符号就是“ra”,接着是一个意义不明的符号,然后是两个“s”的声音。
Was this, Champollion wondered, the name "Ramses"?
商博良想,这是不是“拉美西斯”这个名字呢?
He was eventually able to confirm that it was.
他最后确认了,确实是。
So, he had figured it out.
他弄明白了。
Hieroglyphs were mainly phonetic, they represent sounds not pictures, and the underlying language was Coptic.
象形文字主要是注音文字,它们代表的是声音而不是图像,且隐含的语言是埃及古语。
A lot of work remained, but Champollion had cracked the code.
还有很多工作要做,但商博良已经成功破解了密码。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
traditional [trə'diʃənəl]

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adj. 传统的

 
exception [ik'sepʃən]

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n. 除外,例外,[律]异议,反对

 
eventually [i'ventjuəli]

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adv. 终于,最后

 
fluent ['flu:ənt]

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adj. 流利的,流畅的

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depict [di'pikt]

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vt. 描述,描绘

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crack [kræk]

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v. 崩溃,失去控制,压碎,使裂开,破解,开玩笑

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underlying [.ʌndə'laiiŋ]

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adj. 在下面的,基本的,隐含的

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breakthrough ['breik.θru:]

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n. 突破

 
linguistic [liŋ'gwistik]

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adj. 语言的,语言学的

 
disprove [dis'pru:v]

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vt. 证明 ... 是不对的,提出 ... 的反证

联想记忆

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