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托福TPO-25 Lecture 4(上)

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Listen to part of a lecture in an animal behavior class.

听一段动物行为课程。

All right, I hope you all had a chance to finish the assigned readings about animal play,

好了,我希望你们都有机会看完了指定的关于动物玩耍行为的阅读材料,

because I want to spend some time discussing the different viewpoints presented in those articles.

因为我想花些时间讨论这些文章里的不同观点。

Let's start with the play-as-preparation hypothesis.

我们从“玩耍是一种准备工作”这种假设开始。

Jerry, can you explain that?

杰瑞,你能解释一下吗?

Yeah, play-as-preparation.

对,玩耍即准备。

The young animals play in order to get really good at certain specific things they'll need to do when they are adults.

年幼的动物会通过玩耍来使自己变得擅长于某些特定的技能,这些都是它们成年后需要用到的。

Things like chasing, pouncing, climbing.

像追捕、猛扑、攀爬。

In other words, they play in order to practice survival skills,

换句话说,它们通过玩耍来锻炼生存技能,

like movements used in hunting and fighting.

像是在捕猎和搏斗中会用到的动作。

That hypothesis makes a lot of sense, like, maybe the most sense of all the theories we read about.

这种假设很合理,可能是在所有我们看到的理论中最合理的。

And, what leads you to that conclusion?

什么让你得出这个结论?

Well, like wolves, the young pups, they fight a lot and bite, you know, not to hurt each other,

比如说狼,狼的幼崽,它们经常打架,互相撕咬,你知道的,不会伤害对方,

but, just seems obvious why those wolf pups play like that,

但这些狼崽这样玩耍的原因很明显,

gives them practice with skills that'll make them better hunters or fighters as adults.

就是为了锻炼技能,长大后能成为更好的捕猎者或斗士。

Oh, I don't know about that.

噢,我不知道。

I mean, some of the things the young animal does while playing are totally different from the things they will do as an adult.

我是指,一些年幼动物在玩耍时做的事和它们成年后所作的大有不同。

There was a really good example in the second article.

在第二篇文章中有个很好的例子。

I can't remember what it's called exactly… uh…self…

我不记得具体叫什么了……

Self-handicapping?

自我妨碍?

Right! Self-handicapping, like during a fake fight…uh… a play fight,

对!自我妨碍,就比如是在一场假搏斗中,嗯,玩耍性的搏斗,

if one of the animals is winning, the winning animal might just stop and give up its advantage.

假如其中一只动物要赢了,它可能会就此停下,放弃自己的优势。

Yes, and often a shift to a submissive posture, too.

对,而且还经常会转成顺从姿态。

Of course self-handicapping hardly ever happens in a real fight,

当然了,自我妨碍在真正的搏斗中很少发生,

because in a real fight, well, the point is to win.

因为在真正的搏斗中,关键是要赢。

So this self-handicapping is important to take this into account before deciding to go with that first explanation,

所以第一种解释必须以自我妨碍为前提,

and in fact, there really isn't much in the way of solid experimental evidence to support the play-as-preparation hypothesis.

事实上,真的没有太多的坚实的实验证据支持玩耍即准备的假设。

What about the other one, the flexibility hypothesis?

那另一个理论呢,灵活性理论?

Ah, yes. Let's talk about that.

啊,对。我们来说说这个。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
submissive [səb'misiv]

想一想再看

adj. 服从的,顺从的,柔顺的

联想记忆
conclusion [kən'klu:ʒən]

想一想再看

n. 结论

 
obvious ['ɔbviəs]

想一想再看

adj. 明显的,显然的

联想记忆
evidence ['evidəns]

想一想再看

n. 根据,证据
v. 证实,证明

联想记忆
certain ['sə:tn]

想一想再看

adj. 确定的,必然的,特定的
pron.

 
survival [sə'vaivəl]

想一想再看

n. 生存,幸存者

联想记忆
flexibility [.fleksə'biliti]

想一想再看

n. 灵活性,柔韧性,适应性

联想记忆
experimental [iks.peri'mentl]

想一想再看

adj. 实验(性)的,试验(性)的

 
posture ['pɔstʃə]

想一想再看

n. 姿势,态度,情形
vt. 作 ... 姿

联想记忆
hypothesis [hai'pɔθisis]

想一想再看

n. 假设,猜测,前提

联想记忆

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