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托福TPO-25 Lecture 4(下)

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As you say, play is much more than just pretend fighting or practicing other adult behaviors.

就像你说的,玩耍不仅仅是为了假装在搏斗,或是练习别的成年行为。

Apparently, it also contributes to the development of a brain that's flexible.

很明显,这也有利于灵活大脑的发育。

A brain that's quickly able to get a handle on unfamiliar situations.

一种能在陌生环境中快速掌控情况的思维能力。

This notion, the flexibility hypothesis.

这个概念,这种灵活性假说。

Well, many of my colleagues find it quite persuasive.

我很多同事都觉得这很具有说服力。

So like, with kids, a little kid might play a game with a friend, and then they might raise each other across the field?

所以就像小孩子,也许一个小孩在和一个朋友玩耍,接着可能他们玩过火了?

So, they are switching from one type of play to another, there's a lot of variety?

所以他们会从一种游戏转变到另一种,其中有很多变数?

I mean, they are learning to response to whatever happens?

我是指,它们是在学习不管遇到什么事情都要能够应对?

Well, that's the general idea.

这是其总体概念。

But let's hold off on talking about human behaviors from now.

但从现在起我们不讨论人类行为了。

OK, according to the flexibility hypothesis, yes, the diversity, the variety in play can lead to a broader behavioral vocabulary.

根据灵活性假说,对,其玩耍过程中的多样性会导致产生一个更广的行为语库。

A broader behavioral vocabulary?

更广的行为语库?

Can you explain what that means?

你能解释一下它的意思吗?

Well, sometimes play results in an animal doing something it would not normally do, that can lead to the animal learning to adapt, to come up with new behaviors that can help it cope with major problems later on, like staying safe or finding food.

有时候玩耍行为会导致一种动物做出一些平时不会做的行为,这会导致动物学会适应,创造出新的行为动作来帮助自己应对一些以后会面对的重要问题,比如保持安全或寻找食物。

Yeah, and there was that brain study you had us read about, too.

对,然后还有一篇你让大家看的大脑研究。

Oh, the one on how play affects development within the brain?

噢,那篇关于玩耍行为是怎样影响脑内发育的文章?

Right, that's it, about the animals raised in an environment where they did not get opportunities to play?

对,就是这篇,讲到有些动物,它们的生长环境使得它们没有机会玩耍?

Yes, wasn't the conclusion interesting?

对,这个结论很有趣,不是吗?

That play literally stimulates growth, creates connections within the brain?

玩耍行为真的可以刺激生长,创造脑内连接?

We need to do further studies, but…

我们需要进一步研究,但……

Excuse me, can we go back to play fighting for a minute?

不好意思,我们能回到玩耍性搏斗吗?

I'm wondering, can the flexibility hypothesis really explain that?

我在想,灵活性假说真的能解释这个吗?

Play fighting? Actually that's something that flexibility hypothesis explains very well.

玩耍性搏斗?实际上,灵活性假说能很好地解释这个。

Since play fighting includes variations in speed and intensity, and quick role reversals involved with self-handicapping, and animal that's play-fighting is constantly responding to changes.

既然玩耍性搏斗中包括了很多速度和强度的变数,还有快速角色切换也包括了自我妨碍,玩耍性搏斗的动物时刻需要应变。

So it's learning to be flexible.

所以,这是学习灵活性的过程。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
flexibility [.fleksə'biliti]

想一想再看

n. 灵活性,柔韧性,适应性

联想记忆
response [ri'spɔns]

想一想再看

n. 回答,响应,反应,答复
n. [宗

联想记忆
hypothesis [hai'pɔθisis]

想一想再看

n. 假设,猜测,前提

联想记忆
intensity [in'tensiti]

想一想再看

n. 强烈,强度

 
variety [və'raiəti]

想一想再看

n. 多样,种类,杂耍

 
persuasive [pə'sweisiv]

想一想再看

adj. 有说服力的,令人信服的

 
conclusion [kən'klu:ʒən]

想一想再看

n. 结论

 
diversity [dai'və:siti]

想一想再看

n. 差异,多样性,分集

联想记忆
pretend [pri'tend]

想一想再看

v. 假装,装作
adj. 假装的

联想记忆
constantly ['kɔnstəntli]

想一想再看

adv. 不断地,经常地

 

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