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托福TPO-26 Lecture 1(上)

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Listen to part of a lecture in a history class. The professor has been discussing ancient Egypt.

听一段历史课。教授讲的内容是古埃及。

Ok, so one of the challenges that faced ancient civilizations like Egypt was timekeeping, calendars.

好了,总之,像古埃及这样的农业文明面临的一个挑战是如何记录时间,即日历的问题。

When you have to grow food for whole cities of people, it is important to plant your crops at the right time.

当你要为整个城市的人们种植食物时,很重要的一件事情是在合适的时间把植物种下地。

And when you start having financial obligations, rents, taxes, you have to keep track of how often you pay.

一旦当你承担了经济责任,比如收纳租金、税,就需要记录缴纳的次数。

So today we will look at how the Egyptians addressed these problems.

所以,今天我们将要看看埃及人是如何解决这些问题的。

In fact, they ended up using two calendars, one to keep track of the natural world, or their agriculture concerns, and another one, that was used to keep track of the business functions of the Kingdom.

实际上,他们使用两种的日历。一种与自然界的节律一致,可以满足他们的农业需要。另一种则用来满足帝国的经济功能。

So let's take a look at the hows and whys of one ancient Egyptian calendar system, starting with the Nile River.

所以,让我们看看其中一种古代埃及日历是如何运用的。这要从以尼罗河谈起。

Why the Nile? Well, there's no other way to put it.

为何从尼罗河谈起呢?除了这番理解外,没有其他的方式来解释。

Egyptian life basically revolved around the mysterious rise and fall of the river.

即:埃及人的生活始终围绕着尼罗河神秘的潮起潮落。

The success of their agriculture system depended upon them knowing when the river would change.

他们农业系统的成功与否与是否知道这条河流什么时候会发生变化有关。

So, naturally, their first calendar was divided up into three seasons, each based on the river's changes: inundation, subsidence and harvest.

所以,自然地,他们的第一个日历系统,分为三个季节,每一个都以河流潮汐的变化为根据。即:淹没,退却,和丰收。

The first season was the flooding, or inundation, when the Nile valley was essentially submerged in water for a few months or so.

第一个季节是淹没,在这个时间里尼罗河的谷底会被水淹没几个月。

And afterwards during the season of subsidence, the water would subside, or recede, revealing a new layer of fertile black silt and allowing for the planting of various crops.

之后,轮到了退却季,那时水就会退却了,留下一层黑色且肥沃的泥土,为植物的种植提供了合适的土壤。

And finally the time of the year would arrive when the valley would produce crops, such as wheat, barley, fruit, all ready to harvest.

最后,一年中最重要的时间到来了:大量的庄稼从山谷中出产了,包括麦穗,燕麦,水果,都准备成熟了。

Ok, so it was important to the ancient Egyptians to know when their Nile based seasons would occur, their way of life depended upon it.

所以,对于古埃及人来说,他们的生活很大程度上依赖对尼罗河的各季节何时发生的了解。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
subside [səb'said]

想一想再看

vi. 沉没,平息

联想记忆
revealing [ri'vi:liŋ]

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adj. 有启迪作用的,透露内情的,袒露身体的 动词re

 
inundation [.inʌn'deiʃən]

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n. 淹没,泛滥,洪水

 
mysterious [mis'tiəriəs]

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adj. 神秘的,不可思议的

联想记忆
fertile ['fə:tail]

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adj. 肥沃的,富饶的,能繁殖的,多产的,(创造力)丰

联想记忆
recede [ri'si:d]

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vi. 后退,减弱
vt. 撤回

联想记忆
track [træk]

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n. 小路,跑道,踪迹,轨道,乐曲
v. 跟踪

 
essentially [i'senʃəli]

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adv. 本质上,本来

 
silt [silt]

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n. 淤泥 v. (使)淤塞

 
wheat [wi:t]

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n. 小麦,小麦色

 

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